Methicillin-resistant S. aureus are very likely to possess co-resistance to fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin. Therefore levofloxacin is not recommended for the treatment of known or suspected MRSA infections unless laboratory results have confirmed susceptibility of the organism to levofloxacin (and commonly recommended antibacterial agents for the treatment of MRSA-infections are considered inappropriate).Levofloxacin may be used in the treatment of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis and Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis when these infections have been adequately diagnosed.Resistance to fluoroquinolones of E. coli the most common pathogen involved in urinary tract infections varies across the European Union. Prescribers are advised to take into account the local prevalence of resistance in E. coli to fluoroquinolones.Inhalation Anthrax: Use in humans is based on in vitro Bacillus anthracis susceptibility data and on animal experimental data together with limited human data. Treating physicians should refer to national and/or international consensus documents regarding the treatment of anthrax.
Tendinitis and tendon rupture
Tendinitis may rarely occur. It most frequently involves the Achilles tendon and may lead to tendon rupture. Tendonitis and tendon rupture, sometimes bilateral, may occur within 48 hours of starting treatment with levofloxacin and have been reported up to several months after discontinuation of treatment. The risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture is increased in patients aged over 60 years, in patients receiving daily doses of 1000 mg and in patients using corticosteroids. The daily dose should be adjusted in elderly patients based on creatinine clearance (see section 4.2). Close monitoring of these patients is therefore necessary if they are prescribed levofloxacin. All patients should consult their physician if they experience symptoms of tendinitis. If tendinitis is suspected, treatment with levofloxacin must be halted immediately, and appropriate treatment (e.g. immobilisation) must be initiated for the affected tendon (see sections 4.3 and 4.8).
Clostridium difficile-associated disease
Diarrhoea, particularly if severe, persistent and/or bloody, during or after treatment with levofloxacin (including several weeks after treatment), may be symptomatic of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). CDAD may range in severity from mild to life threatening, the most severe form of which is pseudomembranous colitis (see section 4.8). It is therefore important to consider this diagnosis in patients who develop serious diarrhoea during or after treatment with levofloxacin. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, levofloxacin should be stopped immediately and appropriate treatment initiated without delay Anti-peristaltic medicinal products are contraindicated in this clinical situation.
Patients predisposed to seizures
Quinolones may lower the seizure threshold and may trigger seizures. Levofloxacin is contraindicated in patients with a history of epilepsy (see section 4.3) and, as with other quinolones, should be used with extreme caution in patients predisposed to seizures or concomitant treatment with active substances that lower the cerebral seizure threshold, such as theophylline (see section 4.5). In case of convulsive seizures (see section 4.8), treatment with levofloxacin should be discontinued.
Patients with G-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
Patients with latent or actual defects in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity may be prone to haemolytic reactions when treated with quinolone antibacterial agents. Therefore, if levofloxacin has to be used in these patients, potential occurrence of haemolysis should be monitored.
Patients with renal impairment
Since levofloxacin is excreted mainly by the kidneys, the dose of Tavanic should be adjusted in patients with renal impairment (see section 4.2).
Levofloxacin can cause serious, potentially fatal hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. angioedema up to anaphylactic shock), occasionally following the initial dose (see section 4.8). Patients should discontinue treatment immediately and contact their physician or an emergency physician, who will initiate appropriate emergency measures.
Severe bullous reactions
Cases of severe bullous skin reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported with levofloxacin (see section 4.8). Patients should be advised to contact their doctor immediately prior to continuing treatment if skin and/or mucosal reactions occur.
As with all quinolones, disturbences in blood glucose, including both hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia have been reported, usually in diabetic patients receiving concomitant treatment with an oral hypoglycaemic agent (e.g., glibenclamide) or with insulin. Cases of hypoglycaemic coma have been reported. In diabetic patients, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended (see section 4.8).
Prevention of photosensitisation
Photosensitisation has been reported with levofloxacin (see section 4.8). It is recommended that patients should not expose themselves unnecessarily to strong sunlight or to artificial UV rays (e.g. sunray lamp, solarium), during treatment and for 48 hours following treatment discontinuation in order to prevent photosensitisation.
Patients treated with Vitamin K antagonists
Due to possible increase in coagulation tests (PT/INR) and/or bleeding in patients treated with levofloxacin in combination with a vitamin K antagonist (e.g. warfarin), coagulation tests should be monitored when these drugs are given concomitantly (see section 4.5).Psychotic reactionsPsychotic reactions have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including levofloxacin. In very rare cases these have progressed to suicidal thoughts and self-endangering behaviour- sometimes after only a single dose of levofloxacin (see section 4.8). In the event that the patient develops these reactions, levofloxacin should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted. Caution is recommended if levofloxacin is to be used in psychotic patients or in patients with history of psychiatric disease.
QT interval prolongation
Caution should be taken when using fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, in patients with known risk factors for prolongation of the QT interval such as, for example:- congenital long QT syndrome- concomitant use of drugs that are known to prolong the QT interval (e.g. Class IA and III antiarrhythmics, tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides, antipsychotics)- uncorrected electrolyte imbalance (e.g. hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia)- cardiac disease (e.g. heart failure, myocardial infarction, bradycardia)Elderly patinets and women may be more sensitive to QTc-prolonging medications. Therefore, caution should be taken when using fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, in these populations. (See section 4.2 Elderly, 4.5, 4.8, and 4.9).
Peripheral sensory neuropathy and peripheral sensory motor neuropathy have been reported in patients receiving fluroquinolones, including levofloxacin, which can be rapid in its onset (see section 4.8). Levofloxacin should be discontinued if the patient experiences symptoms of neuropathy in order to prevent the development of an irreversible condition.Hepatobillary disordersCases of hepatic necrosis up to fatal hepatic failure have been reported with levofloxacin, primarily in patients with severe underlying diseases, e.g. sepsis (see section 4.8). Patients should be advised to stop treatment and contact their doctor if signs and symptoms of hepatic disease develop such as anorexia, jaundice, dark urine, pruritus or tender abdomen.
Exacerbation of myasthenia gravis
Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse reactions, including deaths and the requirement for respiratory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in patients with myasthenia gravis. Levofloxacin is not recommended in patients with a known history of myasthenia gravis.
If vision becomes impaired or any effects on the eye are experienced, an eye specialist should be consulted immediately (see sections 4.7 and 4.8).
The use of levofloxacin, especially if prolonged, may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.
Interference with laboratory tests
In patients treated with levofloxacin, determination of opiates in urine may give false-positive results. It may be necessary to confirm positive opiate screens by more specific method.Levofloxacin may inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and, therefore, may give false-negative results in the bacteriological diagnosis of tuberculosis.