We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on the medicines.ie website. Find out more

SANOFI

Citywest Business Campus, Dublin 24, Ireland
Telephone: +353 1 4035600
Fax: +353 1 4035687
Medical Information e-mail: iemedinfo@sanofi.com


Summary of Product Characteristics last updated on medicines.ie: 18/11/2014
SPC Triapin 2.5mg/2.5mg prolonged release tablet



Go to top of the page
1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Triapin 2.5mg/2.5mg prolonged release tablets


Go to top of the page
2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Each tablet contains 2.5 mg of felodipine and 2.5 mg of ramipril.

Each tablet contains 52 mg lactose anhydrous.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1


Go to top of the page
3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Triapin 2.5 mg/2.5 mg tablets are circular (diameter approx 9 mm), apricot coloured, biconvex and engraved on one side and marked 2.5 on the other side.


Go to top of the page
4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

Go to top of the page
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Treatment of essential hypertension. Triapin fixed dose combination is indicated in patients whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled on felodipine or ramipril alone.


Go to top of the page
4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Use in adults, including older people:

One tablet Triapin once daily. The maximum dose is two tablets Triapin once daily.

Special populations

Use in patients with impaired liver function:

See sections 4.3 and 4.4.

Use in patients with impaired renal function or patients already on diuretic treatment:

See sections 4.3 and 4.4.

Individual dose titration with the components can be recommended and when clinically appropriate, direct change from monotherapy to the fixed combination may be considered.

Paediatric population:

Triapin is not recommended for use in children due to a lack of data.

Method of administration

Triapin tablets should be swallowed whole with a sufficient amount of liquid. The tablets must not be divided, crushed or chewed. The tablet can be administered without food or following a light meal not rich in fat or carbohydrate.


Go to top of the page
4.3 Contraindications

Triapin must not be used

• in patients with hypersensitivity to felodipine (or other dihydropyridines) ramipril, other angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

• in patients with a history of angioedema.

• in unstable haemodynamic conditions: cardiovascular shock, untreated heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, stroke.

• in patients with haemodynamically significant cardiac valvular obstruction.

• in patients with dynamic cardiac outflow obstruction.

• in patients with AV block II or III.

• in patients with severely impaired hepatic function.

• in patients with severely impaired renal function (creatinine clearance less than 20 ml/min) and in patients on dialysis.

• during pregnancy.

• during lactation.

• with aliskiren-containing medicinal products in patients with diabetes or with moderate to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <60 ml/min).


Go to top of the page
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Angioedema

Angioedema occurring during treatment with an ACE inhibitor necessitates immediate discontinuation of the medicinal product. Angioedema may involve the tongue, glottis or larynx and, if so, may necessitate emergency measures.

Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis or larynx has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. Emergency therapy should be given including, but not necessarily limited to, immediate subcutaneous adrenalin solution 1:1000 (0.3 to 0.5 ml) or slow intravenous adrenalin 1 mg/ml (observe dilution instructions) with control of ECG and blood pressure. The patient should be hospitalised and observed for at least 12 to 24 hours and should not be discharged until complete resolution of symptoms has occurred.

Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C1-esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.

Compared with non-black patients, a higher incidence of angioedema has been reported in black patients treated with ACE inhibitors.

Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with aliskiren-containing medicinal products

Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by combining Triapin with aliskiren is not recommended since there is an increased risk of hypotension, hyperkalemia and changes in renal function.

The use of Triapin in combination with aliskiren is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus or renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 60 ml/min) (see section 4.3).

Renal function

Renal function should be monitored, particularly in the initial weeks of treatment with ACE inhibitors. Caution should be observed in patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system.

Patients with mild to moderately impaired renal function (creatinine clearance 20-60 ml/min) and patients already on diuretic treatment: For dosage see the respective monoproducts.

Electrolyte Monitoring: Hyperkalaemia

Elevations in serum potassium have been observed in some patients treated with ACE inhibitors, including ramipril. Patients at risk for the development of hyperkalaemia include those with renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, or those using concomitant potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements or potassium-containing salt substitutes; or those patients taking other medicinal products associated with increases in serum potassium (e.g. heparin). If concomitant use of the above mentioned agents is deemed appropriate, regular monitoring of serum potassium is recommended.

Electrolyte Monitoring: Hyponatremia

Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-diuretic Hormone secretion (SIADH) and subsequent hyponatremia has been observed in some patients treated with ramipril. It is recommended that serum sodium levels be monitored regularly in older people and in other patients at risk of hyponatremia.

Proteinuria

It may occur particularly in patients with existing renal function impairment or on relatively high doses of ACE inhibitors.

Renovascular hypertension/renal artery stenosis

There is an increased risk of severe hypotension and renal insufficiency when patients with renovascular hypertension and pre-existing bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a solitary kidney are treated with ACE inhibitors. Loss of renal function may occur with only mild changes in serum creatinine even in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis.

There is no experience regarding the administration of Triapin in patients with a recent kidney transplantation.

Hepatic failure

Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice and progress to fulminant hepatic necrosis and (sometimes) death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical follow-up.

Patients with mild to moderately impaired liver function

For dosage see respective monoproducts.

Surgery/Anaesthesia

Hypotension may occur in patients undergoing major surgery or during treatment with anaesthetic agents that are known to lower blood pressure. If hypotension occurs, it may be corrected by volume expansion.

Aortic stenosis/Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

ACE inhibitors should be used with caution in patients with haemodynamically relevant left-ventricular inflow or outflow impediment (e.g. stenosis of the aortic or mitral valve, obstructive cardiomyopathy). The initial phase of treatment requires special medical supervision.

Symptomatic hypotension

In some patients, symptomatic hypotension may be observed after the initial dose, mainly in patients with heart failure (with or without renal insufficiency) treated with high doses of loop diuretics, in hyponatraemia or in reduced renal function. Therefore, Triapin should only be given to such patients after special considerations and after the doses of the individual components have been carefully titrated. Triapin should only be given if the patient is in a stable circulatory condition (see section 4.3). In hypertensive patients without cardiac and renal insufficiency, hypotension may occur especially in patients with decreased blood volume due to diuretic therapy, salt restriction, diarrhoea or vomiting.

Patients who would be at particular risk from an undesirably pronounced reduction in blood pressure (e.g. patients with coronary or cerebrovascular insufficiency) should be treated with ramipril and felodipine in a free combination. If satisfactory and stable blood pressure control is achieved with the doses of ramipril and felodipine included in Triapin, the patient can be switched to this combination. In some cases, felodipine may cause hypotension with tachycardia, which may aggravate angina pectoris.

Neutropenia/Agranulocytosis

Triapin may cause agranulocytosis and neutropenia. These undesirable effects have also been shown with other ACE inhibitors, rarely in uncomplicated patients but more frequently in patients with some degree of renal impairment, especially when it is associated with collagen vascular disease (e.g. systemic lupus erythematodes, scleroderma) and therapy with immunosuppressive agents. Monitoring of white blood cell counts should be considered for patients who have collagen vascular disease, especially if the disease is associated with impaired renal function. Neutropenia and agranulocytosis are reversible after discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Should symptoms such as fever, swelling of the lymph nodes, and/or inflammation of the throat occur in the course of therapy with Triapin, the treating physician must be consulted and the white blood picture investigated immediately.

Cough

During treatment with an ACE inhibitor a dry cough may occur which disappears after discontinuation.

Concomitant treatment with ACER inhibitors and antidiabetics

Concomitant treatment with ACE inhibitors and antidiabetics (insulin and oral antidiabetics) may lead to an enhanced hypoglycaemic effect with the risk of hypoglycaemia. This effect may be most pronounced at the beginning of treatment and in patients with impaired renal function.

Felodipine is metabolised by CYP3A4. Therefore, combination with medicinal products which are potent CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers should be avoided. For the same reason, the concomitant intake of grapefruit juice should be avoided (see section 4.5).

Lithium

The combination of lithium and ACE inhibitors is not recommended. (see section 4.5).

LDL-apheresis

Concomitant use of ACE inhibitors and extracorporeal treatments leading to contact of blood with negatively charged surfaces should be avoided since it may lead to severe anaphylactoid reactions. Such extracorporeal treatments include dialysis or haemofiltration with certain high-flux (e.g. polyacrylonitrile) membranes and low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulphate.

Desensitisation therapy

Increased likelihood and greater severity of anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions to insect venom (e.g. bee and wasp) as for other ACE inhibitors.

Pregnancy

Patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative antihypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with ACE inhibitors should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started (see sections 4.3 and 4.6).

Ethnic differences

As with other angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ramipril is apparently less effective in lowering blood pressure in black people than in non-blacks, possibly because of a higher prevalence of low-renin states in the black hypertensive population.

Children, patients with creatinine clearance under 20 ml/min and dialysis-treated patients

No experience is available. Triapin should not be given to these patient groups.

Gingival Enlargement

Mild gingival enlargement has been reported in patients taking felodipine with pronounced gingivitis/periodontitis. The enlargement can be avoided or reversed by careful dental hygiene.

Lactose

This product contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.


Go to top of the page
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Contraindicated combinations

Aliskiren-containing medicinal products: The combination of Triapin with aliskiren-containing medicinal products is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus or moderate to severe renal impairment and is not recommended in other patients (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).

Not recommended associations

Potassium salts, potassium-retaining diuretics: Rise in serum potassium concentration is to be anticipated. Concomitant treatment with potassium-retaining diuretics (e.g. spironolactone, triamterene, or amiloride) or with potassium salts requires close monitoring of serum potassium.

Felodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Medicinal products that induce or inhibit CYP3A4 will have large influence on felodipine plasma concentrations.

Medicinal products that increase the metabolism of felodipine through induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 include carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and rifampin as well as St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). During concomitant administration of felodipine with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, AUC decreased by 93% and Cmax by 82%. A similar effect is expected with St John's wort. Combination with CYP3A4 inducers should be avoided.

Potent inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4 include azole antifungals, macrolide antibiotics, telithromycin and HIV protease inhibitors. During concomitant administration of felodipine with itraconazole, Cmax increased 8-fold and AUC 6-fold. During concomitant administration of felodipine with erythromycin, Cmax and AUC increased approximately 2.5-fold. Combination with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided.

Grapefruit juice inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4. Concomitant administration of felodipine with grapefruit juice increased felodipine Cmax and AUC approximately 2-fold. The combination should be avoided.

An increased incidence of angioedema was found in patients taking ACE-inhibitors and vildagliptin.

Caution is recommended with concomitant use

Lithium

Excretion of lithium may be reduced by ACE inhibitors, leading to lithium toxicity. Lithium levels must, therefore, be monitored.

Antihypertensive agents and other substances with blood pressure lowering potential (e.g. nitrates, antipsychotics, narcotics, anaesthetics)

Potentiation of the antihypertensive effect of Triapin is to be anticipated.

Allopurinol, immunosuppressants, corticosteroids, procainamide, cytostatics and other substances that may change the blood picture

Increased likelihood of haematological reactions.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Attenuation of the effect of ramipril is to be expected. Furthermore, concomitant treatment with ACE inhibitors and such medicinal products may lead to an increased risk of worsening of the renal function and an increase in serum potassium.

Vasopressor sympathomimetics

These may reduce the antihypertensive effect of Triapin. Particularly close blood pressure monitoring is recommended.

Insulins, metformin, sulphonylureas

Concomitant treatment with ACE inhibitors and antidiabetic agents may cause a pronounced hypoglycaemic effect with the risk of hypoglycaemia. This effect is most pronounced at the beginning of treatment.

Theophylline

Concomitant administration of felodipine and oral theophylline reduces theophylline absorption by approximately 20%. This is probably of minor clinical importance.

Tacrolimus

Felodipine may increase the concentration of tacrolimus. When used together, the tacrolimus serum concentration should be followed and the tacrolimus dose may need to be adjusted.

Heparin

Rise in serum potassium concentration possible.

Salt

Increased dietary salt intake may attenuate the antihypertensive effect of Triapin.

Alcohol

Increased vasodilatation. The antihypertensive effect of Triapin may increase.


Go to top of the page
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and breast-feeding

Pregnancy

Triapin is contra-indicated (see section, 4.3.) in pregnancy.

Calcium antagonists may inhibit contractions of the uterus during labour. Definite evidence that labour is prolonged in full-term pregnancy is lacking. Risk of foetal hypoxia may occur if the mother is hypotensive and perfusion of the uterus is reduced due to redistribution of the blood-flow through peripheral vasodilatation. In animal experiments, calcium antagonists have caused embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects, especially in the form of distal skeletal malformations in several species.

Appropriate and well-controlled studies with ramipril have not been done in humans. ACE inhibitors cross the placenta and can cause foetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality when administered to pregnant women. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with ACE inhibitors should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started.

ACE inhibitor/ Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist (AIIRA) therapy exposure during the second and third trimesters is known to induce human fetotoxicity (decreased renal function, oligohydramnios, skull ossification retardation) and neonatal toxicity (renal failure, hypotension, hyperkalaemia). (See also section 5.3). Should exposure to ACE inhibitor have occurred from the second trimester of pregnancy, ultrasound check of renal function and skull is recommended. Newborns whose mothers have taken ACE inhibitors should be closely observed for hypotension, oliguria and hyperkalaemia (see also sections 4.3 and 4.4).

Breast-feeding

In animals, ramipril is excreted in milk. No information is available on whether or not ramipril is excreted in human breast-milk. Felodipine is excreted in human breast-milk.

Women must not breast-feed during treatment with Triapin (see section 4.3).

Fertility

No data on male and female fertility in patients are available (see section 5.3).


Go to top of the page
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Some undesirable effects (e.g. some symptoms of reduction in blood pressure such as dizziness) may be accompanied by an impairment of the ability to concentrate and react. This may constitute a risk in situations where these abilities are of special importance, e.g., when driving a car or operating machinery.


Go to top of the page
4.8 Undesirable effects

The frequencies used in the tables throughout this section are:

very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100, <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1000, <1/100), rare (≥1/10 000, <1/1000) and very rare (<1/10 000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)

The following undesirable effects may occur in connection with felodipine treatment

Frequencies/ Organ System

Very Common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very rare

Immune system disorders

 

 

 

 

Hypersensitivity reactions

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

 

 

 

 

Hyperglycaemia

Psychiatric disorders

 

 

 

Impotence/ sexual dysfunction

 

Nervous system disorders

 

Headache

Dizziness, paraesthesiae

Syncope

 

Cardiac disorders

 

 

Tachycardia, palpitations

 

 

Vascular disorders

 

Flush

Hypotension

 

Leucocytoclastic vasculitis

Gastrointestinal disorders

 

 

Nausea, abdominal pain

Vomiting

Gingival hyperplasia, gingivitis

Hepatobiliary disorders

 

 

 

 

Increased liver enzymes

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

 

Rash, pruritus

Urticaria

Photosensitivity reactions, angioedema

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

 

 

 

Arthralgia, myalgia

 

Renal and urinary disorders

 

 

 

 

Pollakisuria

General disorders and administration site conditions

Peripheral oedema

 

Fatigue

 

Fever

The following undesirable effects may occur in connection with ramipril treatment

Frequencies/ Organ System

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very rare

Not Known

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

 

Eosinophilia

White blood cell count decreased (including neutropenia or agranulocytosis), red blood cell count decreased, haemoglobin decreased, platelet count decreased

 

Bone marrow failure, pancytopenia, haemolytic anaemia

Immune system disorders

 

 

 

 

Anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, antinuclear antibody increased

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Blood potassium increased

Anorexia, decreased appetite

 

 

Blood sodium decreased

Psychiatric disorders

 

Depressed mood, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, sleep disorder including somnolence

Confusional state

 

Disturbance in attention

Nervous system disorders

Headache, dizziness

Vertigo, paraesthesia, ageusia, dysgeusia

Tremor, balance disorder

 

Cerebral ischaemia including ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack, psychomotor skills impaired, burning sensation, parosmia

Eye disorders

 

Visual disturbance including blurred vision

Conjunctivitis

 

 

Ear and labyrinth disorders

 

 

Hearing impaired, tinnitus

 

 

Cardiac disorders

 

Myocardial ischaemia including angina pectoris or myocardial infarction, tachycardia, arrhythmia, palpitations, oedema peripheral

 

 

 

Vascular disorders

Hypotension, orthostatic blood pressure decreased, syncope

Flushing

Vascular stenosis, hypoperfusion, vasculitis

 

Raynaud's phenomenon

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Non-productive tickling cough, bronchitis, sinusitis, dyspnoea

Bronchospasm including asthma aggravated, nasal congestion

 

 

 

Gastrointestinal disorders

Gastrointestinal inflammation, digestive disturbances, abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting

Pancreatitis (cases of fatal outcome have been very exceptionally reported with ACE inhibitors), pancreatic enzymes increased, small bowel angioedema, abdominal pain upper including gastritis, constipation, dry mouth

Glossitis

 

Aphtous stomatitis

Hepatobiliary disorders

 

Hepatic enzymes and/or bilirubin conjugated increased

Jaundice cholestatic, hepatocellular damage

 

Acute hepatic failure, cholestatic or cytolytic hepatitis (fatal outcome has been very exceptional).

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rash in particular maculo-papular

Angioedema; very exceptionally, the airway obstruction resulting from angioedema may have a fatal outcome, pruritus, hyperhidrosis

Exfoliative dermatitis, urticaria, onycholysis

Photosensitivity reaction

Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, pemphigus, psoriasis aggravated, dermatitis psoriasiform, pemphigoid or lichenoid exanthema or enanthema, alopecia

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Muscle spasms, myalgia

Arthralgia

 

 

 

Endocrine disorders

 

 

 

 

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)

Renal and urinary disorders

 

Renal impairment including renal failure acute, urine output increased, worsening of a pre-existing proteinuria, blood urea increased, blood creatinine increased

 

 

 

Reproductive system and breast disorders

 

Transient erectile impotence, libido decreased

 

 

Gynaecomastia

General disorders and administration site conditions

Chest pain, fatigue

Pyrexia

Asthenia

 

 

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL - Dublin 2; Tel: +353 1 6764971; Fax: +353 1 6762517. Website: www.hpra.ie ; e-mail: medsafety@hpra.i.e


Go to top of the page
4.9 Overdose

Symptoms

Overdose may cause excessive peripheral vasodilatation with marked hypotension, bradycardia, shock, electrolyte disturbances and renal failure.

Management

Primary detoxification by, for example, gastric lavage, administration of adsorbents and/or sodium sulphate (if possible during the first 30 minutes). In case of hypotension, administration of α1-adrenergic sympathomimetics and angiotensin II must be considered in addition to volume and salt substitution. Bradycardia or extensive vagal reactions should be treated by administering atropine.

No experience is available concerning the efficacy of forced diuresis, alteration in urine pH, haemofiltration, or dialysis in speeding up the elimination of ramipril or ramiprilat. If dialysis or haemofiltration is nevertheless considered, see also under section 4.4.


Go to top of the page
5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

Go to top of the page
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antihypertensive drugs. ATC code: C09 B B05.

Both the calcium antagonist felodipine and the ACE inhibitor ramipril reduce blood pressure by dilation of the peripheral blood vessels. Calcium antagonists dilate the arterial beds while ACE inhibitors dilate both arterial and venous beds. Vasodilatation and thereby reduction of blood pressure may lead to activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system. Inhibition of ACE results in decreased plasma angiotensin II.

The onset of the antihypertensive effect of a single dose of Triapin is 1 to 2 hours. The maximum antihypertensive effect is achieved within 2 to 4 weeks and is maintained during long-term therapy. The blood pressure reduction is maintained throughout the 24-hour dosage interval. Morbidity and mortality data are not available.

Felodipine is a vascular selective calcium antagonist, which lowers arterial blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance via a direct relaxant action on vascular smooth muscles. Due to its selectivity for smooth muscle in the arterioles, felodipine, in therapeutic doses, has no direct effect on cardiac contractility or conduction. The renal vascular resistance is decreased by felodipine. The normal glomerular filtration rate is not influenced. In patients with impaired renal function, the glomerular filtration rate may increase. Felodipine possesses a mild natriuretic/diuretic effect and fluid retention does not occur.

Ramipril is a prodrug which hydrolyses to the active metabolite ramiprilat, a potent and long-acting ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitor. In plasma and tissue, ACE catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and also the breakdown of the vasodilator bradykinin. The vasodilatation induced by the ACE inhibitor reduces blood pressure pre-load and after-load. Since angiotensin II also stimulates the release of aldosterone, ramiprilat reduces secretion of aldosterone. Ramipril reduced peripheral arterial resistance without major changes in renal plasma flow or glomerular filtration rate. In hypertensive patients, ramipril leads to a reduction in supine and standing blood pressure without a compensatory rise in heart rate.


Go to top of the page
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

General characteristics of the active substances

Felodipine ER (extended-release formulation):

The bioavailability is approximately 15% and is not influenced by concomitant intake of food. The peak plasma concentration is reached after 3 to 5 hours. Binding to plasma proteins is more than 99%. The distribution volume at steady state is 10 l/kg. The half-life for felodipine in the elimination phase is approximately 25 hours and steady state is reached after 5 days. There is no risk of accumulation during long-term treatment. Mean clearance is 1200 ml/min. Decreased clearance in older people leads to higher plasma concentrations of felodipine. Age only partly explains the interindividual variation in plasma concentration, however. Felodipine is metabolised in the liver and all identified metabolites are devoid of vasodilating properties. Approximately 70% of a given dose is excreted as metabolites in the urine and about 10% with the faeces. Less than 0.5% of the dose is excreted unchanged in the urine. Impaired renal function does not influence the plasma concentration of felodipine.

Ramipril:

The pharmacokinetic parameters of ramiprilat are calculated after intravenous administration of ramipril. Ramipril is metabolised in the liver, and aside from the active metabolite ramiprilat, pharmacologically inactive metabolites have been identified. The formation of active ramiprilat may be decreased in patients with impaired liver function. The metabolites are excreted mainly via the kidneys. The bioavailability of ramiprilat is approximately 28% after oral administration of ramipril. After intravenous administration of 2.5 mg ramipril, approximately 53% of the dose is converted to ramiprilat. A maximum serum concentration of ramiprilat is achieved after 2 to 4 hours. Absorption and bioavailability are not influenced by concomitant intake of food. The protein binding of ramiprilat is approximately 55%. The distribution volume is approximately 500 litres. The effective half-life, after repeated daily dosage of 5 to 10 mg, is 13 to 17 hours. Steady-state is achieved after approximately 4 days. Renal clearance is 70 to 100 ml/min and total clearance is approximately 380 ml/min. Impaired renal function delays the elimination of ramiprilat and excretion in the urine is reduced.

Characteristics of the combination product

In Triapin the pharmacokinetics of ramipril, ramiprilat and felodipine are essentially unaltered compared to the mono products, felodipine ER tablets and ramipril tablets. Felodipine does not influence the ACE inhibition caused by ramiprilat. The fixed combination tablets are thus regarded as bioequivalent to the free combination.


Go to top of the page
5.3 Preclinical safety data

Repeated-dose toxicity studies performed with the combination in rats and monkeys did not demonstrate any synergistic effects.

Non-clinical data for felodipine and ramipril reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential.

Reproduction toxicity

Felodipine: In investigations on fertility and general reproductive performance in rats, a prolongation of parturition resulting in difficult labour/increased foetal deaths and early postnatal deaths was observed. Reproduction toxicity studies in rabbits have shown a dose-related reversible enlargement of the mammary glands of the parent animals and dose-related digital anomalies in the foetuses.

Ramipril: Studies in rats, rabbits and monkeys did not disclose any teratogenic properties. Daily doses during pregnancy and lactation in rats produced irreversible renal pelvis dilatation in the offspring.


Go to top of the page
6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

Go to top of the page
6.1 List of excipient(s)

Cellulose microcrystalline

Hyprolose

Hypromellose

Iron oxides E172

Lactose anhydrous

Macrogol 6000

Macrogolglycerol hydroxystearate

Maize starch

Paraffin

Propyl gallate

Sodium aluminium silicate

Sodium stearyl fumarate

Titanium dioxide E 171


Go to top of the page
6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.


Go to top of the page
6.3 Shelf life

Triapin: 3 years


Go to top of the page
6.4 Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 25 °C.


Go to top of the page
6.5 Nature and contents of container

PVC/PVDC blisters: 10, 14, 15, 21, 28, 30, 50, 98 and 100 tablets.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.


Go to top of the page
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

No special requirements.


Go to top of the page
7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

sanofi-aventis Ireland Ltd. T/A SANOFI

Citywest Business Campus

Dublin 24

Ireland


Go to top of the page
8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)

PA 540/82/1


Go to top of the page
9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

Date of first authorisation: 13th July 1998

Date of latest renewal: 19th September 2007


Go to top of the page
10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

11 November 2014



Link to this document from your website:
http://www.medicines.ie/medicine/10455/SPC/Triapin+2.5mg+2.5mg+prolonged+release+tablet/

Document Links

 
  Link to this page
  View all medicines
from this company
Print this page
View document history
Bookmark and Share

Active Ingredients

 
   Felodipine
   Ramipril