Jaydess should be used with caution after specialist consultation, or removal of the system should be considered if any of the following conditions exist or arise for the first time:
• migraine, focal migraine with asymmetrical visual loss or other symptoms indicating transient cerebral ischemia
• exceptionally severe headache
• marked increase in blood pressure
• severe arterial disease such as stroke or myocardial infarction
Low-dose levonorgestrel may affect glucose tolerance, and the blood glucose concentration should be monitored in diabetic users of Jaydess. However, there is generally no need to alter the therapeutic regimen in diabetics using LNG IUS.
Medical examination/ consultation
Before insertion, a woman must be informed of the benefits and risks of Jaydess, including the signs and symptoms of perforation and the risk of ectopic pregnancy, see below. A physical examination including pelvic examination, examination of the breasts, and a cervical smear should be performed. Pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases should be excluded. Genital infections should be successfully treated prior to insertion. The position of the uterus and the size of the uterine cavity should be determined. Fundal positioning of Jaydess is important in order to maximize the efficacy and reduce the risk of expulsion. The instructions for the insertion should be followed carefully.
Emphasis should be given to training in the correct insertion technique.
Insertion and removal may be associated with some pain and bleeding. The procedure may precipitate a vasovagal reaction (e.g. syncope, or a seizure in an epileptic patient).
A woman should be re-examined 4 to 6 weeks after insertion to check the threads and ensure that the system is in the correct position. Follow-up visits are recommended once a year thereafter, or more frequently if clinically indicated.
Jaydess is not for use as a post-coital contraceptive.
The use of Jaydess for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding or protection from endometrial hyperplasia during estrogen replacement therapy has not been established. Therefore it is not recommended for use in these conditions.
In clinical trials, the overall incidence of ectopic pregnancy with Jaydess was approximately 0.11 per 100 woman-years. Approximately half of the pregnancies that occur during Jaydess use are likely to be ectopic.
Women considering Jaydess should be counselled on the signs, symptoms and risks of ectopic pregnancy. For women who become pregnant while using Jaydess, the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy must be considered and evaluated.
Women with a previous history of ectopic pregnancy, tubal surgery or pelvic infection carry an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. The possibility of ectopic pregnancy should be considered in the case of lower abdominal pain, especially in connection with missed periods or if an amenorrheic woman starts bleeding.
Because an ectopic pregnancy may impact future fertility the benefits and risks of using Jaydess should be carefully evaluated, in particular for nulliparous women.
Use in nulliparous women: Jaydess is not first choice for contraception in nulliparous women as clinical experience is limited.
Effects on the menstrual bleeding pattern
Effects on the menstrual bleeding pattern are expected in most users of Jaydess. Those alterations are a result of the direct action of levonorgestrel on the endometrium and may not correlate with the ovarian activity.
Irregular bleeding and spotting are common in the first months of use. Thereafter, the strong suppression of the endometrium results in the reduction of the duration and volume of menstrual bleeding. Scanty flow frequently develops into oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea.
In clinical trials, infrequent bleeding and/ or amenorrhea developed gradually in about 22.3 % and 11.6 % of the users, respectively. Pregnancy should be considered if menstruation does not occur within six weeks of the onset of previous menstruation. A repeated pregnancy test is not necessary in subjects who remain amenorrheic unless indicated by other signs of pregnancy.
If bleeding becomes heavier and/ or more irregular over time, appropriate diagnostic measures should be taken as irregular bleeding may be a symptom of endometrial polyps, hyperplasia or cancer and heavy bleeding may be a sign of unnoticed expulsion of the IUS.
While Jaydess and the inserter are sterile they may, due to bacterial contamination during insertion, become a vehicle for microbial transport in the upper genital tract. Pelvic infection has been reported during use of any IUS or IUD. In clinical trials, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) was observed more frequently at the beginning of Jaydess use, which is consistent with published data for copper IUDs, where the highest rate of PID occurs during the first 3 weeks after insertion and decreases thereafter.
Before electing use of Jaydess, patients should be fully evaluated for risk factors associated with pelvic infection (e.g. multiple sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections, prior history of PID). Pelvic infections such as PID may have serious consequences and it may impair fertility and increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
As with other gynecological or surgical procedures, severe infection or sepsis (including group A streptococcal sepsis) can occur following IUD insertion, although this is extremely rare.
If a woman experiences recurrent endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease or if an acute infection is severe or does not respond to treatment, Jaydess must be removed.
Bacteriological examinations are indicated and monitoring is recommended, even with discrete symptoms indicative of infections.
In clinical trials with Jaydess, the incidence of expulsion was low and in the same range as that reported for other IUDs and IUSs. Symptoms of the partial or complete expulsion of Jaydess may include bleeding or pain. However, partial or complete expulsion can occur without the woman noticing it, leading to decrease or loss of contraceptive protection. As Jaydess typically decreases menstrual bleeding over time, an increase of menstrual bleeding may be indicative of an expulsion.
A partially expelled Jaydess should be removed. A new system can be inserted at that time provided pregnancy has been excluded.
A woman should be advised how to check the threads of Jaydess and to contact her healthcare provider if the threads cannot be felt.
Perforation or penetration of the uterine corpus or cervix by an intrauterine contraceptive may occur, most often during insertion, although it may not be detected until sometime later, and may decrease the effectiveness of Jaydess. In case of a difficult insertion and/ or exceptional pain or bleeding during or after insertion, appropriate steps should be taken immediately to exclude perforation, such as physical examination and ultrasound. Such a system must be removed; surgery may be required.
In a large prospective comparative non-interventional cohort study in users of other IUDs (N=61,448 women), the incidence of perforation was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1 - 1.6) per 1000 insertions in the entire study cohort; 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1 - 1.8) per 1000 insertions in the cohort of another LNG- IUS and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.7 - 1.6) per 1000 insertions in the copper IUD cohort.
The study showed that both breastfeeding at the time of insertion and insertion up to 36 weeks after giving birth were associated with an increased risk of perforation (see Table 1). These risk factors were independent of the type of IUD inserted.
Table 1: Incidence of perforation per 1000 insertions for the entire study cohort, stratified by breastfeeding and time since delivery at insertion (parous women)
Breastfeedingat time of insertion
Not breastfeedingat time of insertion
Insertion ≤ 36 weeks after delivery
5.6(95% CI: 3.9-7.9,n=6047 insertions)
1.7(95% CI: 0.8-3.1,n=5927 insertions)
Insertion > 36 weeks after delivery
1.6(95% CI: 0.0-9.1,n=608 insertions)
0.7(95% CI: 0.5-1.1,n=41,910 insertions)
The risk of perforations may be increased in women with fixed retroverted uterus.
Re-examination after insertion should follow the guidance given under the heading “Medical examination/consultation” which may be adapted as clinically indicated in women with risk factors for perforation.
If the removal threads are not visible at the cervix on follow-up examinations, unnoticed expulsion and pregnancy must be excluded. The threads may have been drawn up into the uterus or cervical canal and may reappear during the next menstrual period. If pregnancy has been excluded, the threads may usually be located by gently probing the cervical canal with a suitable instrument. If they cannot be found, the possibility of expulsion or perforation should be considered. Ultrasound exam may be used to ascertain the position of the system. If ultrasound is not available or is not successful, X-ray may be used to locate Jaydess.
Ovarian cysts / enlarged ovarian follicles
Since the contraceptive effect of Jaydess is mainly due to its local effects within the uterus, there is generally no change in ovulatory function, including regular follicular development, oocyte release and follicular atresia in women of fertile age. Sometimes atresia of the follicle is delayed and folliculogenesis may continue. These enlarged follicles cannot be distinguished clinically from ovarian cysts and have been reported in clinical trials as adverse drug events in approximately 13.2 % of women using Jaydess including ovarian cyst, hemorrhagic ovarian cyst and ruptured ovarian cyst. Most of these cysts are asymptomatic, although some may be accompanied by pelvic pain or dyspareunia.
In most cases, the enlarged follicles resolve spontaneously over two to three months observation. Should an enlarged follicle fail to resolve spontaneously, continued ultrasound monitoring and other diagnostic/ therapeutic measures may be appropriate. Rarely, surgical intervention may be required.