We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on the medicines.ie website. Find out more

Novartis Ireland Limited

Vista Building, Elm Park Business Park, Merrion Road, Dublin 4, Ireland
Telephone: +353 1 2601255
Fax: +353 1 2601263
Medical Information e-mail: medinfo.dublin@novartis.com


Summary of Product Characteristics last updated on medicines.ie: 13/11/2017
SPC Kisqali 200 mg film coated tablets

  This medicinal product is subject to additional monitoring. This will allow quick identification of new safety information. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions. See section 4.8 for how to report adverse reactions.

Go to top of the page
1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Kisqali 200 mg film-coated tablets


Go to top of the page
2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Each film-coated tablet contains ribociclib succinate, equivalent to 200 mg ribociclib.

Excipients with known effect

Each film-coated tablet contains 0.344 mg soya lecithin.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.


Go to top of the page
3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Film-coated tablet.

Light greyish violet, unscored, round, curved with bevelled edges (approximate diameter: 11.1 mm), debossed with “RIC” on one side and “NVR” on the other side.


Go to top of the page
4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

Go to top of the page
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Kisqali in combination with an aromatase inhibitor is indicated for the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer as initial endocrine-based therapy.


Go to top of the page
4.2 Posology and method of administration

Treatment with Kisqali should be initiated by a physician experienced in the use of anticancer therapies.

Posology

The recommended dose is 600 mg (three 200 mg film-coated tablets) of ribociclib once daily for 21 consecutive days followed by 7 days off treatment, resulting in a complete cycle of 28 days. The treatment should be continued as long as the patient is deriving clinical benefit from therapy or until unacceptable toxicity occurs.

Kisqali should be used together with 2.5 mg letrozole or another aromatase inhibitor. The aromatase inhibitor should be taken orally once daily continuously throughout the 28-day cycle. Please refer to the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) of the aromatase inhibitor for additional details.

Kisqali can be taken with or without food (see section 4.5). Patients should be encouraged to take their dose at approximately the same time each day, preferably in the morning. If the patient vomits after taking the dose or misses a dose, an additional dose should not be taken that day. The next prescribed dose should be taken at the usual time.

Dose modifications

Management of severe or intolerable adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may require temporary dose interruption, reduction or discontinuation of Kisqali. If dose reduction is required, the recommended dose reduction guidelines are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 Recommended dose modification guidelines

Kisqali

Dose

Number of 200 mg tablets

Starting dose

600 mg/day

3

First dose reduction

400 mg/day

2

Second dose reduction

200 mg*/day

1

* If further dose reduction below 200 mg/day is required, the treatment should be permanently discontinued.

Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5 summarise recommendations for dose interruption, reduction or discontinuation of Kisqali in the management of specific ADRs. The clinical judgement of the treating physician should guide the management plan of each patient based on individual benefit/risk assessment (see section 4.4).

Complete blood counts (CBC) should be performed before initiating treatment with Kisqali. After initiating treatment CBC should be monitored every 2 weeks for the first 2 cycles, at the beginning of each of the subsequent 4 cycles, then as clinically indicated.

Table 2 Dose modification and management – Neutropenia

Grade 1 or 2*

(ANC 1000/mm3 - ≤LLN)

Grade 3*

(ANC 500 - <1000/mm3)

Grade 3* febrile neutropenia**

Grade 4*

(ANC <500/mm3)

Neutropenia

No dose adjustment is required

Dose interruption until recovery to grade ≤2.

Resume Kisqali at the same dose level.

If toxicity recurs at grade 3: dose interruption until recovery to grade ≤2, then resume Kisqali and reduce by 1 dose level.

Dose interruption until recovery to grade ≤2. Resume Kisqali and reduce by 1 dose level

Dose interruption until recovery to grade ≤2.

Resume Kisqali and reduce by 1 dose level.

* Grading according to CTCAE Version 4.03 (CTCAE = Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events)

** Grade 3 neutropenia with a single fever >38.3°C (or above 38°C for more than one hour and/or concurrent infection)

ANC = absolute neutrophil count; LLN = lower limit of normal

Liver function tests (LFTs) should be performed before initiating treatment with Kisqali. After initiating treatment LFTs should be performed every 2 weeks for the first 2 cycles, at the beginning of each of the subsequent 4 cycles, then as clinically indicated. If grade ≥2 abnormalities are noted, more frequent monitoring is recommended.

Table 3 Dose modification and management – Hepatobiliary toxicity

Grade 1*

(> ULN – 3 x ULN)

Grade 2*

(>3 to 5 x ULN)

Grade 3*

(>5 to 20 x ULN)

Grade 4*

(>20 x ULN)

AST and/or ALT elevations from baseline**, without increase in total bilirubin above 2 x ULN

No dose adjustment is required.

Baseline grade <2:

Dose interruption until recovery to ≤ baseline grade, then resume Kisqali at same dose level. If grade 2 recurs, resume Kisqali at next lower dose level.

Dose interruption of Kisqali until recovery to ≤ baseline grade, then resume at next lower dose level.

If grade 3 recurs, discontinue Kisqali.

Discontinue Kisqali.

Baseline grade = 2:

No dose interruption.

Combined elevations in AST and/or ALT together with total bilirubin increase, in the absence of cholestasis

If patients develop ALT and/or AST >3 x ULN along with total bilirubin >2 x ULN irrespective of baseline grade, discontinue Kisqali.

* Grading according to CTCAE Version 4.03 (CTCAE = Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events)

** Baseline = prior to treatment initiation

ULN = upper limit of normal

ECG should be assessed before initiating treatment with Kisqali. After initiating treatment, ECG should be repeated at approximately day 14 of the first cycle and at the beginning of the second cycle, then as clinically indicated. In case of QTcF prolongation during treatment, more frequent ECG monitoring is recommended.

Table 4 Dose modification and management – QT prolongation

ECGs with QTcF >480 msec

1. The dose should be interrupted.

2. If QTcF prolongation resolves to <481 msec, resume treatment at the same dose level.

3. If QTcF ≥481 msec recurs, interrupt dose until QTcF resolves to <481 msec and then resume Kisqali at the next lower dose level.

ECGs with QTcF >500 msec

If QTcF is greater than 500 msec on at least 2 separate ECGs, interrupt Kisqali until QTcF is <481 msec then resume Kisqali at next lower dose level.

If QTcF interval prolongation to greater than 500 msec or greater than 60 msec change from baseline occurs in combination with torsade de pointes or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or signs/symptoms of serious arrhythmia, permanently discontinue Kisqali.

Table 5 Dose modification and management – Other toxicities*

Other toxicities

Grade 1 or 2**

Grade 3**

Grade 4**

No dose adjustment is required. Initiate appropriate medical therapy and monitor as clinically indicated.

Dose interruption until recovery to grade ≤1, then resume Kisqali at the same dose level.

If grade 3 recurs, resume Kisqali at the next lower dose level.

Discontinue Kisqali.

* Excluding neutropenia, hepatotoxicity and QT interval prolongation.

** Grading according to CTCAE Version 4.03 (CTCAE = Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events)

Refer to the SmPC for the co-administered aromatase inhibitor for dose modification guidelines and other relevant safety information in the event of toxicity.

Dose modification for use of Kisqali with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors

Concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided and an alternative concomitant medicinal product with less potential to inhibit CYP3A4 inhibition should be considered. If patients must be given a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor concomitantly with ribociclib, the Kisqali dose should be reduced to 400 mg once daily (see section 4.5).

In patients who have had their dose reduced to 400 mg ribociclib daily and in whom initiation of co-administration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided, the dose should be further reduced to 200 mg.

In patients who have had their dose reduced to 200 mg ribociclib daily and in whom initiation of co-administration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided, Kisqali treatment should be interrupted.

Due to inter-patient variability, the recommended dose adjustments may not be optimal in all patients, therefore close monitoring of signs of toxicity is recommended. If the strong inhibitor is discontinued, the Kisqali dose should be changed to the dose used prior to the initiation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor after at least 5 half-lives of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor (see sections 4.4, 4.5 and 5.2).

Special populations

Renal impairment

No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (see section 5.2). Caution should be used in patients with severe renal impairment with close monitoring of signs of toxicity as there is no experience with Kisqali in this population (see section 5.2)

Hepatic impairment

Based on a pharmacokinetic study in healthy subjects and non-cancer subjects with impaired hepatic function, no dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A). Patients with moderate (Child-Pugh class B) and severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) can have increased (less than 2-fold) exposure to ribociclib and the starting dose of 400 mg Kisqali once daily is recommended. Ribociclib has not been studied in breast cancer patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment (see section 5.2).

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Kisqali in children and adolescents aged below 18 years have not been established. No data are available.

Elderly

No dose adjustment is required in patients over 65 years of age (see section 5.2).

Method of administration

Kisqali should be taken orally once daily with or without food. The tablets should be swallowed whole and should not be chewed, crushed or split prior to swallowing. No tablet should be ingested if it is broken, cracked or otherwise not intact.


Go to top of the page
4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to peanut, soya or any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.


Go to top of the page
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Critical visceral disease

The efficacy and safety of ribociclib have not been studied in patients with critical visceral disease.

Neutropenia

Based on the severity of the neutropenia, treatment with Kisqali may have to be interrupted, reduced or discontinued as described in Table 2 (see sections 4.2 and 4.8).

Hepatobiliary toxicity

Liver function tests should be performed before initiating treatment with Kisqali. After initiating treatment, liver function should be monitored (see sections 4.2 and 4.8).

Based on the severity of the transaminase elevations, treatment with Kisqali may have to be interrupted, reduced or discontinued as described in Table 3 (see sections 4.2 and 4.8). Recommendations for patients who have elevated AST/ALT grade ≥ 3 at baseline have not been established.

QT interval prolongation

ECG should be assessed before initiating treatment. Treatment with Kisqali should be initiated only in patients with QTcF values less than 450 msec. ECG should be repeated at approximately day 14 of the first cycle and at the beginning of the second cycle, then as clinically indicated (see sections 4.2 and 4.8).

Appropriate monitoring of serum electrolytes (including potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) should be performed before initiating treatment, at the beginning of the first 6 cycles and then as clinically indicated. Any abnormality should be corrected before initiating treatment with Kisqali.

The use of Kisqali should be avoided in patients who already have or who are at significant risk of developing QTc prolongation. This includes patients:

• with long QT syndrome;

• with uncontrolled or significant cardiac disease, including recent myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, unstable angina and bradyarrhythmias;

• with electrolyte abnormalities.

The use of Kisqali with medicinal products known to prolong QTc interval and/or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided as this may lead to clinically meaningful prolongation of the QTcF interval (see sections 4.2, 4.5 and 5.1). If treatment with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided, the dose should be reduced to 400 mg once daily (see sections 4.2 and 4.5).

Based on the observed QT prolongation during treatment, treatment with Kisqali may have to be interrupted, reduced or discontinued as described in Table 4 (see sections 4.2, 4.8 and 5.2).

CYP3A4 substrates

Ribociclib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor at the 600 mg dose and a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor at the 400 mg dose. Thus, ribociclib may interact with medicinal products which are metabolised via CYP3A4, which may lead to increased serum concentrations of CYP3A4 substrates (see section 4.5). Caution is recommended in case of concomitant use with sensitive CYP3A4 substrates with a narrow therapeutic index and the SmPC of the other product should be consulted for the recommendations regarding co-administration with CYP3A4 inhibitors.

Soya lecithin

Kisqali contains soya lecithin. Patients who are hypersensitive to peanut or soya should not take Kisqali (see section 4.3).


Go to top of the page
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Substances that may increase ribociclib plasma concentrations

Ribociclib is primarily metabolised by CYP3A4. Therefore, medicinal products that can influence CYP3A4 enzyme activity may alter the pharmacokinetics of ribociclib. Co-administration of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor ritonavir (100 mg twice daily for 14 days) with a single 400 mg dose of ribociclib increased ribociclib exposure (AUCinf) and the peak concentration (Cmax) in healthy subjects 3.2 and 1.7-fold, respectively, relative to a single 400 mg ribociclib dose given alone. Cmax and AUClast for LEQ803 (a prominent metabolite of ribociclib accounting for less than 10% of parent exposure) decreased by 96% and 98%, respectively.

The concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors including, but not limited to, the following must be avoided: clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, lopinavir, ritonavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, posaconazole, saquinavir, telaprevir, telithromycin, verapamil and voriconazole (see section 4.4). Alternative concomitant medicinal products with less potential to inhibit CYP3A4 should be considered and patients should be monitored for ribociclib-related AEs (see sections 4.2, 4.4 and 5.2).

If co-administration of Kisqali with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided, the dose of Kisqali should be reduced as described in section 4.2. However, there are no clinical data with these dose adjustments. Due to inter-patient variability, the recommended dose adjustments may not be optimal in all patients, therefore close monitoring for ribociclib-related AEs is recommended. In the event of ribociclib-related toxicity, the dose should be modified or treatment should be interrupted until toxicity is resolved (see sections 4.2 and 5.2). If the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, and after at least 5 half-lives of the CYP3A4 inhibitor (refer to the SmPC of the CYP3A4 inhibitor in question), Kisqali should be resumed at the same dose used prior to the initiation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.

Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic simulations suggested that at a 600 mg dose of ribociclib, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor (erythromycin) may increase ribociclib steady-state Cmax and AUC 1.2-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively. For patients who had their ribociclib dose reduced to 400 mg once daily, the increase of the steady-state Cmax and AUC was estimated to be 1.4- and 2.1-fold, respectively. The effect at the 200 mg once-daily dose was predicted to be a 1.7- and 2.8-fold increase, respectively. No dose adjustments of ribociclib are required at initiation of treatment with mild or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. However, monitoring of ribociclib-related AEs is recommended.

Patients should be instructed to avoid pomegranates or pomegranate juice and grapefruit or grapefruit juice. These are known to inhibit cytochrome CYP3A4 enzymes and may increase the exposure to ribociclib.

Substances that may decrease ribociclib plasma concentrations

Co-administration of the strong CYP3A4 inducer rifampicin (600 mg daily for 14 days) with a single 600 mg dose of ribociclib decreased the ribociclib AUCinf and Cmax by 89% and 81%, respectively, relative to a single 600 mg ribociclib dose given alone in healthy subjects. LEQ803 Cmax increased 1.7-fold and AUCinf decreased by 27%, respectively. The concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inducers may therefore lead to decreased exposure and consequently a risk for lack of efficacy. The concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inducers should be avoided, including, but not limited to, phenytoin, rifampicin, carbamazepine and St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum). An alternative concomitant medicinal product with no or minimal potential to induce CYP3A4 should be considered.

The effect of a moderate CYP3A4 inducer on ribociclib exposure has not been studied. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic simulations suggested that a moderate CYP3A4 inducer (efavirenz) may decrease steady-state ribociclib Cmax and AUC by 51% and 70%, respectively. The concomitant use of moderate CYP3A4 inducers may therefore lead to decreased exposure and consequently a risk for impaired efficacy, in particular in patients treated with ribociclib at 400 mg or 200 mg once daily.

Substances that may have plasma concentrations altered by Kisqali

Ribociclib is a moderate to strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and may interact with medicinal substrates that are metabolised via CYP3A4, which can lead to increased serum concentrations of the concomitantly used medicinal product.

Co-administration of midazolam (CYP3A4 substrate) with multiple doses of Kisqali (400 mg) increased the midazolam exposure by 280% (3.80-fold) in healthy subjects, compared with administration of midazolam alone. Simulations using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models suggested that Kisqali given at the clinically relevant dose of 600 mg is expected to increase the midazolam AUC by 5.2-fold. Therefore, in general, when ribociclib is co-administered with other medicinal products, the SmPC of the other medicinal product must be consulted for the recommendations regarding co-administration with CYP3A4 inhibitors. Caution is recommended in case of concomitant use with sensitive CYP3A4 substrates with a narrow therapeutic index (see section 4.4). The dose of a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate with a narrow therapeutic index, including but not limited to alfentanil, ciclosporin, everolimus, fentanyl, sirolimus and tacrolimus, may need to be reduced as ribociclib can increase their exposure.

Concomitant administration of ribociclib at the 600 mg dose with the following CYP3A4 substrates should be avoided: alfuzosin, amiodarone, cisapride, pimozide, quinidine, ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, quetiapine, lovastatin, simvastatin, sildenafil, midazolam, triazolam.

Co-administration of caffeine (CYP1A2 substrate) with multiple doses of Kisqali (400 mg) increased the caffeine exposure by 20% (1.20-fold) in healthy subjects, compared with administration of caffeine alone. At the clinically relevant dose of 600 mg, simulations using PBPK models predicted only weak inhibitory effects of ribociclib on CYP1A2 substrates (<2-fold increase in AUC).

It is currently unknown whether Kisqali may reduce the effectiveness of systemically-acting hormonal contraceptives.

Substances that are substrates of transporters

In vitro evaluations indicated that ribociclib has a potential to inhibit the activities of drug transporters P-gp, BCRP, OATP1B1/1B3, OCT1, OCT2, MATE1 and BSEP. Caution and monitoring for toxicity are advised during concomitant treatment with sensitive substrates of these transporters which exhibit a narrow therapeutic index, including but not limited to digoxin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin and metformin.

Drug-food interactions

Kisqali can be administered with or without food (see sections 4.2 and 5.2).

Medicinal products that elevate gastric pH

Ribociclib exhibits high solubility at or below pH 4.5 and in bio-relevant media (at pH 5.0 and 6.5). Co-administration of ribociclib with medicinal products that elevate the gastric pH was not evaluated in a clinical study; however, altered ribociclib absorption was not observed in population pharmacokinetic and non–compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses.

Drug-drug interaction between ribociclib and letrozole

Data from a clinical study in patients with breast cancer and population pharmacokinetic analysis indicated no drug interaction between ribociclib and letrozole following co-administration of these medicinal products.

Anticipated interactions

Anti-arrhythmic medicinal products and other medicinal products that may prolong the QT interval

Co-administration of Kisqali with medicinal products with a known potential to prolong the QT interval such as anti-arrhythmic medicinal products (including, but not limited to, amiodarone, disopyramide, procainamide, quinidine and sotalol), and other medicinal products that are known to prolong the QT interval (including, but not limited to, chloroquine, halofantrine, clarithromycin, haloperidol, methadone, moxifloxacin, bepridil, pimozide and intravenous ondansetron) should be avoided (see section 4.4).


4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy status should be verified prior to starting treatment with Kisqali.

Based on findings in animals, ribociclib can cause foetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman (see section 5.3).

For further information concerning pregnancy, lactation and fertility, see section 5.3.


Go to top of the page
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Kisqali may have minor influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Patients should be advised to be cautious when driving or using machines in case they experience fatigue during treatment with Kisqali (see section 4.8).


Go to top of the page
4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

The overall safety evaluation of Kisqali is based on data from 898 patients; 568 of whom were exposed to ribociclib at the recommended 600 mg dose, using the proposed treatment regimen of 600 mg ribociclib (Days 1-21 of a 28-day cycle), and including 381 who received ribociclib in combination with letrozole 2.5 mg once daily.

The safety data reported below are based on the data from the phase III clinical study with a median duration of exposure to ribociclib plus letrozole of 13 months (58.1% patients exposed for ≥12 months.)

Dose reduction due to adverse events, regardless of causality, occurred in 44.6% of patients receiving Kisqali plus letrozole and permanent discontinuation was reported in 7.5% of patients.

The most common ADRs and the most common grade 3/4 ADRs (reported at a frequency ≥20% and ≥2%, respectively) for which the frequency for Kisqali plus letrozole exceeds the frequency for placebo plus letrozole were neutropenia, leukopenia, headache, back pain, nausea, fatigue, diarrhoea, vomiting, constipation, alopecia and rash and neutropenia, leukopenia, abnormal liver function test, lymphopenia, hypophosphataemia, vomiting, nausea, fatigue and back pain, respectively.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

Adverse drug reactions from the phase III clinical study (Table 6) are listed by MedDRA system organ class. Within each system organ class, the adverse drug reactions are ranked by frequency, with the most frequent reactions first. Within each frequency grouping, adverse drug reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. In addition, the corresponding frequency category for each adverse drug reaction is based on the following convention (CIOMS III): very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000); and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Table 6 Adverse drug reactions observed in the phase III clinical study

Adverse drug reaction

Frequency

Infections and infestations

Urinary tract infection

Very common

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Neutropenia, leukopenia, anaemia, lymphopenia

Very common

Thrombocytopenia, febrile neutropenia

Common

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Decreased appetite

Very common

Hypocalcaemia, hypokalaemia, hypophosphataemia

Common

Nervous system disorders

Headache, insomnia

Very common

Eye disorders

Lacrimation increased, dry eye

Common

Cardiac disorders

Syncope

Common

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Dyspnoea

Very common

Epistaxis

Common

Gastrointestinal disorders

Nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, constipation, stomatitis, abdominal pain

Very common

Dysgeusia, dyspepsia

Common

Hepatobiliary disorders

Hepatotoxicity1

Common

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Alopecia, rash2, pruritus

Very common

Erythema

Common

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Back pain

Very common

General disorders and administration site conditions

Fatigue, peripheral oedema, asthenia, pyrexia

Very common

Investigations

Abnormal liver function tests3

Very common

Blood creatinine increased, weight decreased, electrocardiogram QT prolonged

Common

1Hepatotoxicity: hepatocellular injury, drug-induced liver injury, hepatotoxicity, hepatic failure (single non-fatal case), autoimmune hepatitis (single case).

2Rash: rash, rash maculopapular.

3Abnormal liver function tests: ALT increased, AST increased, blood bilirubin increased.

Description of selected adverse drug reactions

Neutropenia

Neutropenia was the most frequently reported adverse drug reaction (74.3%) and a grade 3 or 4 decrease in neutrophil counts (based on laboratory findings) was reported in 59.6% of patients receiving Kisqali and letrozole in the phase III study.

Among the patients who had grade 2, 3 or 4 neutropenia, the median time to onset was 16 days, for those patients who had an event. The median time to resolution of grade ≥3 (to normalisation or grade <3) was 15 days in the ribociclib plus letrozole treatment group following treatment interruption and/or reduction and/or discontinuation. Febrile neutropenia was reported in about 1.5% of patients exposed to Kisqali in the phase III study. Patients should be instructed to report any fever promptly.

Based on its severity, neutropenia was managed by laboratory monitoring, dose interruption and/or dose modification. Treatment discontinuation due to neutropenia was low (0.9%) (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

Hepatobiliary toxicity

In the phase III clinical study, hepatobiliary toxicity events occurred in a higher proportion of patients in the ribociclib plus letrozole arm compared with the placebo plus letrozole arm (24.0% versus 13.6%, respectively), with more grade 3/4 adverse events reported in the patients treated with ribociclib plus letrozole (11.4% versus 3.6%, respectively). Increases in transaminases were observed. Grade 3 or 4 increases in ALT (10.2% versus 1.2%) and AST (6.9% versus 1.5%) were reported in the ribociclib and placebo arms, respectively. Concurrent elevations in ALT or AST greater than three times the upper limit of normal and total bilirubin greater than two times the upper limit of normal, with normal alkaline phosphatase, in the absence of cholestasis occurred in 4 (1.2%) patients and all patients recovered to normal levels within 154 days after treatment with Kisqali was discontinued.

Dose interruptions and/or adjustments due to hepatotobiliary toxicity events were reported in 8.4% of ribociclib plus letrozole treated patients, primarily due to ALT increased (5.7%) and/or AST increased (4.5%). Discontinuation of treatment with Kisqali plus letrozole due to abnormal liver function tests or hepatotoxicity occurred in 3.0% and 0.6% of patients respectively (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

In the phase III clinical study and a phase Ib study with ribociclib plus letrozole treatment, 83.8% (31/37) of grade 3 or 4 ALT or AST elevation events occurred within the first 6 months of treatment. Among the patients who had grade 3 or 4 ALT/AST elevation, the median time to onset was 57 days for the ribociclib plus letrozole treatment group. The median time to resolution (to normalisation or grade ≤2) was 24 days in the ribociclib plus letrozole group.

QT prolongation

In the phase III clinical study 7.5% of patients in the ribociclib plus letrozole arm and 2.4% in the placebo plus letrozole arm had at least one event of QT interval prolongation (including ECG QT prolonged and syncope). Review of ECG data (average of triplicate) showed 1 patient (0.3%) had >500 msec post-baseline QTcF value, and 9 patients (2.7%) had a >60 msec increase from baseline in QTcF intervals. There were no reported cases of torsade de pointes. Dose interruptions/adjustments were reported in 0.9% of ribociclib plus letrozole treated patients due to electrocardiogram QT prolonged and syncope.

A central analysis of ECG data (average of triplicate) showed 11 patients (3.3%) and 1 patient (0.3%) with at least one >480 msec post-baseline QTcF for the ribociclib plus letrozole arm and the placebo plus letrozole arm respectively. Amongst the patients who had QTcF prolongation >480 msec, the median time to onset was 15 days and these changes were reversible with dose interruption and/or dose reduction (see sections 4.2, 4.4 and 5.2).

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL – Dublin 2; +353 1 6764974; Fax: +353 1 6762517.

Website: www.hpra.ie; E-mail: medsafety@hpra.ie.


Go to top of the page
4.9 Overdose

There are no known cases of overdosage with Kisqali. In the event of an overdose, symptoms such as nausea and vomiting may occur. In addition, haematological (e.g. neutropenia, thrombocytopenia) toxicity and possible QTc prolongation may occur. General supportive care should be initiated in all cases of overdosage as necessary.


Go to top of the page
5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

Go to top of the page
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antineoplastic agents, protein kinase inhibitors, ATC code: L01XE42

Mechanism of action

Ribociclib is a selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6, resulting in 50% inhibition (IC50) values of 0.01 (4.3 ng/ml) and 0.039 μM (16.9 ng/ml) in biochemical assays, respectively. These kinases are activated upon binding to D-cyclins and play a crucial role in signalling pathways which lead to cell cycle progression and cellular proliferation. The cyclin D-CDK4/6 complex regulates cell cycle progression through phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb).

In vitro, ribociclib decreased pRb phosphorylation, leading to arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and reduced cell proliferation in breast cancer cell lines. In vivo, treatment with single-agent ribociclib led to tumour regressions which correlated with inhibition of pRb phosphorylation.

In vivo studies using patient-derived oestrogen-positive breast cancer xenograft model combinations of ribociclib and antioestrogens (i.e. letrozole) resulted in superior tumour growth inhibition with sustained tumour regression and delayed tumour regrowth after stopping dosing compared to each substance alone.

When tested in a panel of breast cancer cell lines with known ER status, ribociclib demonstrated to be more efficacious in ER+ breast cancer cell lines than in the ER- ones.

Cardiac electrophysiology

Serial, triplicate ECGs were collected following a single dose and at steady state to evaluate the effect of ribociclib on the QTc interval in patients with advanced cancer. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis included a total of 267 patients treated with ribociclib at doses ranging from 50 to 1200 mg, including 193 patients treated with ribociclib 600 mg. The analysis suggested that ribociclib causes concentration-dependent increases in the QTc interval. The estimated mean change from baseline in QTcF was 22.87 msec (90% CI: 21.6, 24.1) at the mean observed Cmax at a steady-state Cmax (2237 ng/ml) following administration at the recommended 600 mg dose (see section 4.4).

Clinical efficacy and safety

Study CLEE011A2301 (MONALEESA-2)

Kisqali was evaluated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre phase III clinical study in the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer who received no prior therapy for advanced disease in combination with letrozole versus letrozole alone.

A total of 668 patients were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either Kisqali 600 mg and letrozole (n=334) or placebo and letrozole (n=334), stratified according to the presence of liver and/or lung metastases (Yes [n=292 (44%)]) versus No [n=376 (56%)]). Demographics and baseline disease characteristics were balanced and comparable between study arms. Kisqali was given orally at a dose of 600 mg daily for 21 consecutive days followed by 7 days off treatment in combination with letrozole 2.5 mg once daily for 28 days. Patients were not allowed to cross over from placebo to Kisqali during the study or after progression of disease.

Patients enrolled in this study had a median age of 62 years (range 23 to 91). 44.2% patients were older than 65 years, including 69 patients older than 75 years. The patients included were Caucasian (82.2%), Asian (7.6%), and Black (2.5%). All patients had an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. 43.7% of patients had received chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting and 52.4% had received antihormonal therapy in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting prior to study entry. 34.1% of patients were de novo. 20.7% of patients had bone-only disease and 59.0% of patients had visceral disease. Patients with prior (neo)adjuvant therapy with anastrozole or letrozole must have completed this therapy at least 12 months before study randomisation.

The primary endpoint for the study was met at the planned interim analysis conducted after observing 80% of targeted progression-free survival (PFS) events using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST v1.1), based on the investigator assessment in the full population (all randomised patients), and confirmed by a blinded independent central radiological assessment.

The efficacy results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in PFS in patients receiving Kisqali plus letrozole compared to patients receiving placebo plus letrozole in the full analysis set (hazard ratio of 0.556, 95% CI: 0.429, 0.720, one sided stratified log-rank test p-value 0.00000329) with clinically meaningful treatment effect.

The global health status/QoL data showed no relevant difference between the Kisqali plus letrozole arm and the placebo plus letrozole arm.

A more mature update of efficacy data (02 January 2017 cutoff) is provided in Tables 7 and 8.

Median PFS was 25.3 months (95% CI: 23.0, 30.3) for ribociclib plus letrozole treated patients and 16.0 months (95% CI: 13.4, 18.2) for patients receiving placebo plus letrozole. 54.7% of patients receiving ribociclib plus letrozole were estimated to be progression-free at 24 months compared with 35.9% in the placebo plus letrozole arm.

There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival (OS) between the Kisqali plus letrozole arm and the placebo plus letrozole arm (HR 0.746 [95% CI: 0.517, 1.078]). OS data remain immature.

Table 7 Efficacy results – MONALEESA-2 primary efficacy results (PFS) based on investigator radiological assessment (02 January 2017 cutoff)

Updated analysis (02 January 2017 cutoff)

Kisqali plus letrozole

N=334

Placebo plus letrozole

N=334

Progression-free survival

Median PFS [months] (95% CI)

25.3 (23.0-30.3)

16.0 (13.4-18.2)

Hazard ratio (95% CI)

0.568 (0.457-0.704)

p-valuea

9.63×10-8

CI=confidence interval; N=number of patients;

ap-value is obtained from the one-sided stratified log-rank test.

Figure 1 Kaplan-Meier plot of PFS based on investigator assessment – MONALEESA-2 (full analysis set 02 January 2017 cutoff)

A series of pre-specified subgroup PFS analyses was performed based on prognostic factors and baseline characteristics to investigate the internal consistency of treatment effect. A reduction in the risk of disease progression or death in favour of the ribociclib plus letrozole arm was observed in all individual patient subgroups of age, race, prior adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapies, liver and/or lung involvement and bone-only metastatic disease. This was evident for patients with liver and/or lung metastases (HR of 0.561 [95% CI: 0.424, 0.743], median progression-free survival [mPFS] 24.8 months for ribociclib plus letrozole versus 13.4 months for letrozole alone), or without liver and/or lung metastases (HR of 0.597 [95% CI: 0.426, 0.837], mPFS 27.6 months versus 18.2 months).

Updated results for overall response and clinical benefit rates are displayed in Table 8.

Table 8 MONALEESA-2 efficacy results (ORR, CBR) based on investigator assessment (02 January 2017 cutoff)

Analysis

Kisqali + letrozole

(%, 95% CI)

Placebo + letrozole

(%, 95% CI)

p-valuec

Full analysis set

N=334

N=334

Overall response ratea

42.5 (37.2, 47.8)

28.7 (23.9, 33.6)

9.18 × 10-5

Clinical benefit rateb

79.9 (75.6, 84.2)

73.1 (68.3, 77.8)

0.018

Patients with measurable disease

N=257

N=245

Overall response ratea

54.5 (48.4, 60.6)

38.8 (32.7, 44.9)

2.54 × 10-4

Clinical benefit rateb

80.2 (75.3, 85.0)

71.8 (66.2, 77.5)

0.018

a ORR: Overall response rate = proportion of patients with complete response + partial response

b CBR: Clinical benefit rate = proportion of patients with complete response + partial response (+ stable disease or non-complete response/Non-progressive disease ≥24 weeks)

c p-values are obtained from one-sided Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test

Paediatric population

The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with Kisqali in all subsets of the paediatric population in breast cancer (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).


Go to top of the page
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

The pharmacokinetics of ribociclib were investigated in patients with advanced cancer following oral daily doses of 50 mg to 1200 mg. Healthy subjects received single oral doses ranging from 400 mg to 600 mg or repeated daily doses (8 days) at 400 mg.

Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of ribociclib is not known.

The time to reach Cmax (Tmax) following ribociclib oral administration was between 1 and 4 hours. Ribociclib exhibited slightly over-proportional increases in exposure (Cmax and AUC) across the dose range tested (50 to 1200 mg). Following repeated once-daily dosing, steady state was generally achieved after 8 days and ribociclib accumulated with a geometric mean accumulation ratio of 2.51 (range: 0.97 to 6.40).

Food effect

Compared to the fasted state, oral administration of a single 600 mg dose of ribociclib film-coated tablets with a high-fat, high-calorie meal had no effect on the rate and extent of absorption of ribociclib.

Distribution

Binding of ribociclib to human plasma proteins in vitro was approximately 70% and was independent of concentration (10 to 10000 ng/ml). Ribociclib was equally distributed between red blood cells and plasma with a mean in vivo blood-to-plasma ratio of 1.04. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss/F) was 1090 L based on population pharmacokinetic analysis.

Biotransformation

In vitro and in vivo studies indicated ribociclib is eliminated primarily via hepatic metabolism mainly via CYP3A4 in humans. Following oral administration of a single 600 mg dose of [14C] ribociclib to humans, the primary metabolic pathways for ribociclib involved oxidation (dealkylation, C and/or N-oxygenation, oxidation (-2H)) and combinations thereof. Phase II conjugates of ribociclib phase I metabolites involved N-acetylation, sulfation, cysteine conjugation, glycosylation and glucuronidation. Ribociclib was the major circulating drug-derived entity in plasma. The major circulating metabolites included metabolite M13 (CCI284, N-hydroxylation), M4 (LEQ803, N-demethylation), and M1 (secondary glucuronide). Clinical activity (pharmacological and safety) of ribociclib was due primarily to parent drug, with negligible contribution from circulating metabolites.

Ribociclib was extensively metabolised, with unchanged drug accounting for 17.3% and 12.1% of the dose in faeces and urine, respectively. Metabolite LEQ803 was a significant metabolite in excreta and represented approximately 13.9% and 3.74% of the administered dose in faeces and urine, respectively. Numerous other metabolites were detected in both faeces and urine in minor amounts (≤2.78% of the administered dose).

Elimination

The geometric mean plasma effective half-life (based on accumulation ratio) was 32.0 hours (63% CV) and the geometric mean apparent oral clearance (CL/F) was 25.5 l/hr (66% CV) at steady state at 600 mg in patients with advanced cancer. The geometric mean apparent plasma terminal half-life (T1/2) of ribociclib ranged from 29.7 to 54.7 hours and the geometric mean CL/F of ribociclib ranged from 39.9 to 77.5 l/hr at 600 mg across studies in healthy subjects.

Ribociclib and its metabolites are eliminated mainly via faeces, with a small contribution of the renal route. In 6 healthy male subjects, following a single oral dose of [14C] ribociclib, 91.7% of the total administered radioactive dose was recovered within 22 days; faeces was the major route of excretion (69.1%), with 22.6% of the dose recovered in urine.

Linearity/non-linearity

Ribociclib exhibited slightly over-proportional increases in exposure (Cmax and AUC) across the dose range of 50 mg to 1200 mg following both single dose and repeated doses. This analysis is limited by the small sample sizes for most of the dose cohorts with a majority of the data coming from the 600 mg dose cohort.

Special populations

Renal impairment

Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis that included 77 patients with normal renal function (eGFR ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2), 76 patients with mild renal impairment (eGFR 60 to <90 ml/min/1.73 m2) and 35 patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to <60 ml/min/1.73 m2), mild and moderate renal impairment had no effect on the exposure of ribociclib (see section 4.2). The pharmacokinetics of ribociclib in patients with severe renal impairment have not been studied.

Hepatic impairment

Based on a pharmacokinetic study in patients with hepatic impairment, mild hepatic impairment had no effect on the exposure of ribociclib (see section 4.2). The mean exposure for ribociclib was increased less than 2-fold in patients with moderate (geometric mean ratio [GMR]: 1.50 for Cmax; 1.32 for AUCinf) and severe (GMR: 1.34 for Cmax; 1.29 for AUCinf) hepatic impairment. Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis that included 160 breast cancer patients with normal hepatic function and 47 patients with mild hepatic impairment, mild hepatic impairment had no effect on the exposure of ribociclib, further supporting the findings from the dedicated hepatic impairment study (see section 4.2).

Effect of age, weight, gender and race

Population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that there are no clinically relevant effects of age, body weight or gender on the systemic exposure of ribociclib that would require a dose adjustment. Data on differences in pharmacokinetics due to race are too limited to draw conclusions.

In vitro interaction data

Effect of ribociclib on cytochrome P450 enzymes

In vitro, ribociclib is a reversible inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4/5 and a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4/5, at clinically relevant concentrations. In vitro evaluations indicated that ribociclib has no potential to inhibit the activities of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 at clinically relevant concentrations. Ribociclib has no potential for time-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2D6.

In vitro data indicate that ribociclib has no potential to induce UGT enzymes or the CYP enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 via PXR. Therefore, Kisqali is unlikely to affect substrates of these enzymes. In vitro data are not sufficient to exclude a potential of ribociclib to induce CYP2B6 via CAR.

Effect of transporters on ribociclib

Ribociclib is a substrate for P-gp in vitro, but based on mass balance data inhibition of P-gp or BCRP is unlikely to affect ribociclib exposure at therapeutic doses. Ribociclib is not a substrate for hepatic uptake transporters OATP1B1, OATP1B3 or OCT-1 in vitro.

Effect of ribociclib on transporters

In vitro evaluations indicated that ribociclib has a potential to inhibit the activities of drug transporters P-gp, BCRP, OATP1B1/1B3, OCT1, OCT2, MATE1 and BSEP. Ribociclib did not inhibit OAT1, OAT3 or MRP2 at clinically relevant concentrations in vitro.


Go to top of the page
5.3 Preclinical safety data

Safety pharmacology

In vivo cardiac safety studies in dogs demonstrated dose and concentration related QTc interval prolongation at an exposure that would be expected to be achieved in patients following the recommended dose of 600 mg. There is also potential to induce incidences of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) at elevated exposures (approximately 5-fold the anticipated clinical Cmax).

Repeated-dose toxicity

Repeated-dose toxicity studies (treatment schedule of 3 weeks on/1 week off) of up to 27 weeks' duration in rats and up to 39 weeks' duration in dogs, revealed the hepatobiliary system (proliferative changes, cholestasis, sand-like gallbladder calculi, and inspissated bile) as the primary target organ of toxicity of ribociclib. Target organs associated with the pharmacological action of ribociclib in repeat-dose studies include bone marrow (hypocellularity), lymphoid system (lymphoid depletion), intestinal mucosa (atrophy), skin (atrophy), bone (decreased bone formation), kidney (concurrent degeneration and regeneration of tubular epithelial cells) and testes (atrophy). Besides the atrophic changes seen in the testes, which showed a trend towards reversibility, all other changes were fully reversible after a 4-week treatment-free period. Exposure to ribociclib in animals in the toxicity studies was generally less than or equal to that observed in patients receiving multiple doses of 600 mg/day (based on AUC).

Reproductive toxicity/Fertility

Ribociclib showed foetotoxicity and teratogenicity at doses which did not show maternal toxicity in the rats or rabbits. In rats, reduced foetal weights accompanied by skeletal changes considered to be transitory and/or related to the lower foetal weights were noted. In rabbits, there were adverse effects on embryo-foetal development as evidenced by increased incidences of foetal abnormalities (malformations and external, visceral and skeletal variants) and foetal growth (lower foetal weights). These findings included reduced/small lung lobes and additional vessel on the aortic arch and diaphragmatic hernia, absent accessory lobe or (partly) fused lung lobes and reduced/small accessory lung lobe (30 and 60 mg/kg), extra/rudimentary thirteenth ribs and misshapen hyoid bone and reduced number of phalanges in the pollex. There was no evidence of embryo-foetal mortality.

Ribociclib has not been evaluated in fertility studies. However, chronic toxicity studies in rats and dogs revealed atrophic changes of the testes after histopathological evaluation. These effects can be linked to a direct anti-proliferative effects on the testicular germ cells resulting in atrophy of the seminiferous tubules.

Ribociclib and its metabolites passed readily into rat milk. The exposure to ribociclib was higher in milk than in plasma.

Genotoxicity

Genotoxicity studies in bacterial in vitro systems and in mammalian in vitro and in vivo systems with and without metabolic activation did not reveal any evidence for a genotoxic potential of ribociclib.


Go to top of the page
6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

Go to top of the page
6.1 List of excipient(s)

Tablet core

Microcrystalline cellulose

Crospovidone type A

Low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose

Magnesium stearate

Colloidal anhydrous silica

Film coating

Iron oxide black (E172)

Iron oxide red (E172)

Soya lecithin (E322)

Polyvinyl alcohol (partially hydrolysed)

Talc

Titanium dioxide (E171)

Xanthan gum


Go to top of the page
6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.


Go to top of the page
6.3 Shelf life

2 years.


Go to top of the page
6.4 Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.


Go to top of the page
6.5 Nature and contents of container

PVC/PCTFE (polyvinylchloride/polychlorotrifluoroethylene) or PA/alu/PVC (polyamide/aluminium/polyvinylchloride) blisters containing 14 or 21 film-coated tablets.

Unit packs containing 21, 42 or 63 film-coated tablets and multipacks containing 63 (3 packs of 21), 126 (3 packs of 42) or 189 (3 packs of 63) film-coated tablets.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.


Go to top of the page
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.


Go to top of the page
7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

Novartis Europharm Limited

Frimley Business Park

Camberley GU16 7SR

United Kingdom


Go to top of the page
8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)

EU/1/17/1221/001-012


Go to top of the page
9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

22 August 2017


Go to top of the page
10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

22 August 2017

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.



Link to this document from your website:
http://www.medicines.ie/medicine/17352/SPC/Kisqali+200+mg+film+coated+tablets/

Document Links

 
  Link to this page
  View all medicines
from this company
Print this page
View document history
Bookmark and Share

Active Ingredients

 
   Ribociclib succinate