Basiliximab has been tested in four randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in renal transplant recipients as an induction agent in combination with the following immunosuppressive regimens: ciclosporin for microemulsion and corticosteroids in two studies (346 and 380 patients), ciclosporin for microemulsion, azathioprine and corticosteroids in one study (340 patients), and ciclosporin for microemulsion, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids in another study (123 patients). Safety data in paediatric patients have been obtained from one open-label pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study in renal transplant recipients (41 patients).
Incidence of adverse events: In the above four placebo-controlled trials, the pattern of adverse events in 590 patients treated with the recommended dose of basiliximab was comparable to that observed in 595 patients treated with placebo. The overall incidence of treatment-related adverse events among all patients in the individual studies was not significantly different between the basiliximab (7.1% - 40%) and the placebo (7.6% - 39%) treatment groups.
The most commonly reported (> 20%) events following dual or triple therapy in both treatment groups (basiliximab vs. placebo) were constipation, urinary tract infection, pain, nausea, peripheral oedema, hypertension, anaemia, headache, hyperkalaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, postoperative wound complication, weight increase, increase in blood creatinine, hypophosphataemia, diarrhoea and upper respiratory tract infection.
The most commonly reported (> 20%) events following dual therapy in both (< 35 kg vs. ≥ 35 kg weight) cohorts were urinary tract infection, hypertrichosis, rhinitis, pyrexia, hypertension, upper respiratory tract infection, viral infection, sepsis and constipation.
Incidence of malignant neoplasms: The overall incidence of malignancies among all patients in the individual studies was similar between the basiliximab and the comparator treatment groups. Overall, lymphoma/lymphoproliferative disease occurred in 0.1% (1/701) of patients in the basiliximab group compared with 0.3% (2/595) of patients receiving placebo, both in combination with dual and triple immunosuppressive therapy. Other malignancies were reported among 1.0% (7/701) of patients in the basiliximab group compared with 1.2% (7/595) of placebo patients. In a pooled analysis of two five-year extension studies, the incidence of LPDs and cancer was found to be equal with basiliximab 7% (21/295) and placebo 7% (21/291) (see section 4.4).
Incidence of infectious episodes: The overall incidence and profile of viral, bacterial and fungal infections among patients treated with basiliximab or placebo in combination with dual and triple immunosuppressive therapy was comparable between the groups. The overall incidence of infections was 75.9% in the basiliximab group and 75.6% in the placebo group and the incidence of serious infections was 26.1% and 24.8%, respectively. The incidence of CMV infections was similar in both groups (14.6% vs. 17.3%), following either dual or triple therapy regimen (see section 4.4).
The incidence and causes of deaths following dual or triple therapy were similar in basiliximab (2.9%) and placebo groups (2.6%), with the most common cause of deaths in both treatment groups being infections (basiliximab = 1.3%, placebo = 1.4%). In a pooled analysis of two five-year extension studies the incidence and cause of death remained similar in both treatment groups, (basiliximab 15%, placebo 11%), the primary cause of death being cardiac-related disorders such as cardiac failure and myocardial infarction (basiliximab 5%, placebo 4%).
Listing of adverse reactions from post-marketing spontaneous reports
The following adverse reactions have been identified based on post-marketing spontaneous reports and are organised by system organ class. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency.
Immune system disorders
Hypersensitivity/anaphylactoid reactions such as rash, urticaria, pruritus, sneezing, wheezing, bronchospasm, dyspnoea, pulmonary oedema, cardiac failure, hypotension, tachycardia, respiratory failure, capillary leak syndrome (see section 4.4). Cytokine release syndrome.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions to: HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL - Dublin 2, Tel: +353 1 6764971, Fax: +353 1 6762517, Website: www.hpra.ie, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org