Pharmacokinetic interactionsCo-administration of the anticholinergic drug trihexyphenidyl with standard dosage form of Madopar reduces the rate, but not the extent, of levodopa absorption. Trihexyphenidyl given concomitantly with Madopar CR formulation does not affect the pharmacokinetics of levodopa.Ferrous sulfate decreases maximum plasma concentration and the AUC of levodopa by 30 50%. The pharmacokinetic changes observed during co-treatment with ferrous sulfate appear to be clinically significant in some but not all patients.Opioids and drugs which interfere with central amine mechanisms, such as rauwolfia alkaloids (reserpine), tetrabenazine (Nitoman), metoclopramide, phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, butyrophenones, amphetamines and papaverine should be avoided where possible. If, however, their administration is considered essential, extreme care should be exercised and a close watch kept for any signs of potentiation, antagonism, or other interactions and for unusual side-effects. Metoclopramide increases the rate of levodopa absorption.
Domperidone may increase the bioavailability of levodopa by stimulation of gastric emptying.
Pharmacodynamic interactionsNeuroleptics, opioids and antihypertensive medications containing reserpine inhibit the action of Madopar.Concomitant administration of antipsychotics with dopamine-receptor blocking properties, particularly D2-receptor antagonists might antagonize the antiparkinsonian effects of Madopar, therefore, should be carried out with caution, and the patient carefully observed for loss of antiparkinsonian effect and worsening of parkinsonian symptoms.Symptomatic orthostatic hypotension occurred when combinations of levodopa and a decarboxylase inhibitor were added to the treatment of patients already receiving antihypertensives. Madopar needs to be introduced cautiously in patients receiving antihypertensive medication. Blood pressure needs to be monitored to allow for potential dosage adjustment of either of the drugs, if required.Concomitant administration of Madopar with sympathomimetics (agents such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, isoproterenol or amphetamine which stimulate the sympathetic nervous system) may potentiate their effects, therefore these combinations are not recommended. Should concomitant administration prove necessary, close surveillance of the cardiovascular system is essential, and the dose of the sympathomimetic agents may need to be reduced.If Madopar is to be administered to patients receiving irreversible non-selective MAO inhibitors, an interval of at least 2 weeks should be allowed between cessation of the MAO inhibitor and the start of Madopar therapy. Otherwise unwanted effects such as hypertensive crises are likely to occur (see 4.3 Contraindications). Selective MAO-B inhibitors, such as selegiline and rasagiline and selective MAO-A inhibitors, such as moclobemide, can be prescribed to patients on levodopa-benserazide. It is recommended to readjust the levodopa dose to the individual patient's needs, in terms of both efficacy and tolerability. Combination of MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors is equivalent to non-selective MAO inhibition, and hence this combination should not be given concomitantly with Madopar (see 4.3 Contraindications).
Combination with other anti-Parkinsonian agents such as anticholinergics, amantadine, selegiline, bromocriptine and dopamine agonists are permissible, though both the desired and undesired effects of treatment may be intensified. When initiating an adjuvant treatment with a COMT inhibitor, a reduction of the dosage of Madopar may be necessary. Anticholinergics should not be withdrawn abruptly when Madopar therapy is instituted, as levodopa does not begin to take effect for some time.
Levodopa may affect the results of laboratory tests for catecholamines, ketone bodies, creatinine, uric acid and glucose. The urine test results may give a false positive for ketone bodies. Levodopa therapy has been reported to inhibit the response to protirelin in tests of thyroid function. Coombs' tests may give a false-positive result in patients taking Madopar.
A diminution of effect is observed when the drug is taken with a protein-rich meal.
Concomitant administration of antipsychotics with dopamine-receptor blocking properties, particularly D2-receptor antagonists might antagonise the antiparkinsonian effects of levodopa-benserazide. Levodopa may reduce antipsychotic effects of these drugs. These drugs should be co-administered with caution.
General anaesthesia with halothane: levodopa-benserazide should be discontinued 12-48 hours before surgical intervention requiring general anaesthesia with halothane as fluctuations in blood pressure and/or arrhythmias may occur. For general anesthesia with other anaesthetics see section 4.4.