GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare (Ireland) Ltd
Summary of Product Characteristics last updated on medicines.ie: 3/10/2016
Nicotinell Cool Mint 2mg medicated chewing gum
Nicotinell Cool Mint 2 mg, medicated chewing-gum
Each piece of medicated chewing-gum contains: Active substance: 2 mg nicotine (as 10 mg nicotine polacrilin (1:4)).
Excipient(s) with known effect: sorbitol (0.1 g), sodium (11.44 mg) and butylhydroxytoluene (E321).
For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1
Each piece of coated medicated chewing-gum is off-white in colour and rectangular in shape.
4.1 Therapeutic indications
Relief of nicotine withdrawal symptoms, in nicotine dependency as an aid to smoking cessation.
Patient counselling and support normally improve the success rate.
4.2 Posology and method of administration
Adults and elderly
Users should stop smoking completely during treatment with Nicotinell medicated chewing-gum.
The 2 mg medicated chewing-gum is not recommended for smokers with a strong or very strong nicotine dependency.
The optimal dosage form is selected according to the following table:
If an adverse event occurs with the use of the high dose form (4 mg medicated chewing-gum), use of the low dose form (2 mg medicated chewing-gum) should be considered.
The initial dosage should be individualised on the basis of the patient's nicotine dependence.
One piece of Nicotinell medicated chewing-gum to be chewed when the user feels the urge to smoke.
If Nicotinell 2 mg medicated chewing-gum is selected, normally use 8-12 pieces per day, up to a maximum of 25 pieces per day.
The characteristics of medicated chewing-gum as a pharmaceutical form are such that individually different nicotine levels can result in the blood. Therefore, dosage frequency should be adjusted according to individual requirements within the stated maximum limit.
The treatment duration is individual. Normally, treatment should continue for at least 3 months.
After 3 months, the users should gradually reduce the number of pieces chewed each day until they have stopped using the product.
Treatment should be discontinued when the dose has been reduced to 1-2 pieces of medicated chewing-gum per day. Use of nicotine medicinal products like Nicotinell medicated chewing-gum beyond 6 months is generally not recommended. Some ex-smokers may need treatment with the medicated chewing-gum for longer to avoid returning to smoking. Patients who have been using oral nicotine replacement therapy beyond 9 months are advised to seek additional help and information from health care professionals.
Counselling may help smokers to quit.
Nicotinell medicated chewing-gum should not be used by people under 18 years of age without recommendation from a physician. There is no experience in treating adolescents under the age of 18 years with Nicotinell medicated chewing-gum.
Method of administration
1. One piece of medicated chewing-gum should be chewed until the taste becomes strong.
2. The medicated chewing-gum should be rested between the gum and cheek.
3. When the taste fades, chewing should commence again.
4. The chewing routine should be repeated for 30 minutes.
Concomitant use of acidic beverages such as coffee or soda may decrease the buccal absorption of nicotine. Acidic beverages should be avoided for 15 minutes prior to chewing the medicated chewing-gum.
Hypersensitivity to nicotine or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
Nicotinell medicated chewing-gum should not be used by non-smokers.
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Dependent smokers with a recent myocardial infarction, unstable or worsening angina including Prinzmetal's angina, severe cardiac arrhythmias, uncontrolled hypertensions or recent cerebrovascular accident should be encouraged to stop smoking with non-pharmacological interventions (such as counselling). If this fails, Nicotinell medicated chewing-gums may be considered but as data on safety in this patient group are limited, initiation should only be under close medical supervision.
Nicotinell medicated chewing-gums should be used with caution in patients with hypertension, stable angina pectoris, cerebrovascular disease, occlusive peripheral arterial disease, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism or pheochromocytoma and severe hepatic and/or renal impairment.
Patients should initially be encouraged to stop smoking with non-pharmacological interventions (such as counselling).
Swallowed nicotine may exacerbate symptoms in subjects suffering from active oesophagitis, oral or pharyngeal inflammation, gastritis or peptic ulcer.
Doses of nicotine that are tolerated by adult smokers during treatment may produce severe symptoms of poisoning in small children and may prove fatal (please see Section 4.9).
People having problems with the joint of the jawbone and denture wearers may experience difficulty in chewing the medicated chewing-gum. In this case, it is recommended that they use a different pharmaceutical form of nicotine replacement therapy.
Special warnings about excipients
Because Nicotinell Cool Mint medicated chewing-gums contain sorbitol: Patients with rare hereditary conditions of fructose intolerance should not take this medicine.
Nicotinell Cool Mint 2 mg medicated chewing-gum contains sweeteners, including sorbitol (E420) 0.1 g per medicated chewing-gum, a source of 0.02 g fructose. Calorific value 1.2 kcal/piece of medicated chewing-gum.
Nicotinell Cool Mint 2 mg medicated chewing-gum contains sodium 11.44 mg per piece.
The gum base contains butylhydroxytoluene (E321) which may cause local irritation to mucous membranes.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Drug Interactions: No information is available on interactions between Nicotinell medicated chewing-gum and other medicinal products.
Smoking Cessation: Smoking but not nicotine is associated with increased CYP1A2 activity. After stopping smoking there may be reduced clearance of substrates for this enzyme and increased plasma levels of some medicinal products of potential clinical importance because of their narrow therapeutic window e.g. theophylline, tacrine, olanzapine and clozapine.
The plasma concentrations of other active substances metabolised by CYP1A2 e.g. caffeine, paracetamol, phenazone, phenylbutazone, pentazocine, lidocaine, benzodiazepines, warfarin, oestrogen and vitamin B12 may also increase. However the clinical significance of this effect for these active substances is unknown.
Smoking may lead to reduced analgesic effects of propoxyphene, reduced diuretic response to furosemide (frusemide), reduced effect of propranolol on blood pressure and heart rate and reduced responder rates in ulcer healing with H2-antagonists.
Smoking and nicotine may raise the blood levels of cortisol and catecholamines, i.e. may lead to a reduced effect of nifedipine or adrenergic antagonists and to an increased effect of adrenergic agonists.
Increased subcutaneous absorption of insulin which occurs upon smoking cessation may necessitate a reduction in insulin dose.
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
In pregnant women complete cessation of tobacco smoking should always be recommended without nicotine replacement therapy;
Nevertheless, in the case of failure in highly dependent pregnant smokers, tobacco withdrawal via nicotine replacement therapy may be recommended. Indeed, foetal risk is probably lower than that expected with tobacco smoking, due to:
- lower maximal plasma nicotine concentration than with inhaled nicotine
- no additional exposure to polycyclic hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide
- improved chances of quitting smoking by the third trimester.
Smoking continued during the third trimester may lead to intra-uterine growth retardation or even premature birth or stillbirth, depending on the daily amount of tobacco.
Tobacco withdrawal with or without nicotine replacement therapy should not be undertaken alone but as part of a medically supervised smoking cessation program.
In the third trimester nicotine has haemodynamic effects (e.g. changes in foetal heart rate) which could affect the foetus close to delivery. Therefore, after the sixth month of pregnancy, the medicated chewing-gum should only be used under medical supervision in pregnant smokers who have failed to stop smoking by the third trimester.
Nicotine is excreted in breast milk in quantities that may affect the child even in therapeutic doses. Nicotinell medicated chewing-gum, like smoking itself, should therefore be avoided during breast-feeding. Should smoking withdrawal not be achieved, use of the medicated chewing-gum by breast-feeding smokers should only be initiated after advice from a physician. Where nicotine replacement therapy is used whilst breast-feeding, the medicated chewing-gum should be taken just after breast-feeding and not during the two hours before breast-feeding.
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
There is no evidence of any risks associated with driving or operating machinery when the medicated chewing-gum is used following the recommended dose. Nevertheless one should take into consideration that smoking cessation can cause behavioural changes.
4.8 Undesirable effects
Nicotinell medicated chewing-gum can cause adverse reactions similar to those associated with nicotine administered by smoking. These can be attributed to the pharmacological effects of nicotine, which are dose-dependent. Non dose-dependent adverse reactions are as follows: jaw muscle ache, erythema, urticaria, hypersensitivity, angioneurotic oedema and anaphylactic reactions.
Most of the side effects which are reported by patients occur generally during the first 3-4 weeks after initiation of therapy.
Nicotine from gums may sometimes cause a slight irritation of the throat and increase salivation at the start of the treatment.
Excessive swallowing of nicotine which is released in the saliva may, at first, cause hiccups. Those who are prone to indigestion may suffer initially from minor degrees of dyspepsia or heartburn; slower chewing will usually overcome this problem.
Excessive consumption of nicotine gums by subjects who have not been in the habit of inhaling tobacco smoke, could possibly lead to nausea, faintness and headache.
Increased frequency of aphthous ulcer may occur after abstinence from smoking.
The medicated chewing-gum may stick to and in rare cases damage dentures and dental appliances.
System Organ Class
(≥1/100 to <1/10)
(≥1/1,000 to <1/100)
(≥1/10,000 to <1/1000)
Nervous system disorders
Hiccups, gastric symptoms e.g. nausea, flatulence, vomiting, dyspepsia, salivary hypersecretion, stomatitis, oral pain, or pharyngolaryngeal pain
Musculoskeletal, connective and bone disorders
Jaw muscle ache
Atrial arrhythmia (e.g. atrial fibrillation)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Immune system disorders
Hypersensitivity, angioneurotic oedema and anaphylactic reactions
Certain symptoms which have been reported such as dizziness, headache and insomnia may be ascribed to withdrawal symptoms in connection with smoking cessation and may be due to insufficient administration of nicotine.
Cold sores may develop in connection with smoking cessation, but any relation with the nicotine treatment is unclear.
The patient may still experience nicotine dependence after smoking cessation.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL - Dublin 2; Tel: +353 1 6764971; Fax: +353 1 6762517. Website: www.hpra.ie; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
In overdose, symptoms corresponding to heavy smoking may be seen.
The acute lethal oral dose of nicotine is about 0.5 - 0.75 mg per kg bodyweight, corresponding in an adult to 40 - 60 mg. Even small quantities of nicotine are dangerous in children, and may result in severe symptoms of poisoning which may prove fatal. If poisoning is suspected in a child, a doctor must be consulted immediately.
Overdose with Nicotinell medicated chewing-gum may only occur if many pieces are chewed simultaneously. Nicotine toxicity after ingestion will most likely be minimised as a result of early nausea and vomiting that occur following excessive nicotine exposure. Risk of poisoning by swallowing the medicated chewing-gum is small. Since the release of nicotine from the medicated chewing-gum is slow, very little nicotine is absorbed from the stomach and intestine, and if any is, it will be inactivated in the liver.
General symptoms of nicotine poisoning include: weakness, perspiration, salivation, dizziness, throat burn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, hearing and visual disturbances, headache, tachycardia and cardiac arrhythmia, dyspnoea, prostration, circulatory collapse, coma and terminal convulsions.
Treatment of overdose
Treatment of overdose should be immediate as symptoms may develop rapidly. Emesis is usually spontaneous. Administration of oral activated charcoal and gastric lavage should be considered as soon as possible and within 1 hour of ingestion. Monitor vital signs and treat symptomatically.
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Drugs used in nicotine dependence
ATC Code: N07B A01
Nicotine, the primary alkaloid in tobacco products and a naturally occurring autonomous substance, is a nicotine receptor agonist in the peripheral and central nervous systems and has pronounced CNS and cardiovascular effects. On consumption of tobacco products, nicotine has proven to be addictive, resulting in craving and other withdrawal symptoms when administration is stopped. This craving and these withdrawal symptoms include a strong urge to smoke, dysphoria, insomnia, irritability, frustration or anger, anxiety, concentration difficulties agitation and increased appetite or weight gain. The medicated chewing-gum replaces part of the nicotine that would have been administrated via tobacco and reduces the intensity of the withdrawal symptoms and smoking urge.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
When the medicated chewing-gum is chewed, nicotine is steadily released into the mouth and is rapidly absorbed through the buccal mucosa. A proportion, by the swallowing of nicotine containing saliva, reaches the stomach and intestine where it is inactivated.
The nicotine peak plasma mean concentration after a single dose of Nicotinell 2 mg medicated chewing-gum is approximately 6.4 nanograms per ml (after 45 minutes) (average plasma concentration of nicotine when smoking a cigarette is 15-30 nanograms per ml).
Nicotine is eliminated mainly via hepatic metabolism; small amounts of nicotine are eliminated in unchanged form via the kidneys. The plasma half-life is approximately three hours. Nicotine crosses the blood-brain barrier, the placenta and is detectable in breast milk.
5.3 Preclinical safety data
Nicotine was positive in some in vitro genotoxicity tests but there are also negative results with the same test systems. Nicotine was negative in standard in-vivo tests.
Animal experiments have shown that nicotine induces post-implantation loss and reduces the growth of foetuses.
The results of carcinogenicity assays did not provide any clear evidence of a tumorigenic effect of nicotine.
6.1 List of excipients
Gum base (containing butylhydroxytoluene (E321))
Sodium carbonate anhydrous
Sodium hydrogen carbonate
Natural Mint Flavouring
Titanium dioxide (E171)
6.3 Shelf life
6.4 Special precautions for storage
Do not store above 25°C.
6.5 Nature and contents of container
The medicated chewing-gum is packed in PVC/PVdC/aluminium blisters each containing either 2 or 12 pieces of medicated chewing-gum. The blisters are packed in boxes containing 2, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, 120 and 204 pieces of medicated chewing-gum. Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
Used Nicotinell medicated chewing-gum should be disposed of with care.
GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare (Ireland) Limited,
12 Riverwalk, CityWest Business Campus, Dublin 24,
Date of first authorization: 06 April 2001
Date of last renewal: 25 May 2010
16 September 2016